Saturday, May 21, 2016

The UK is checking for the mosquito species that carry the Zika virus. It is the best methodology to eradicate the virus.

27 January 2016
By  Colin Fernandez

Fears the Zika (click here) virus could strike Britain were fuelled after an insect expert claimed mosquitos that can carry the disease have been found here.
Howard Carter said there have been several sightings of the Aedes Aegypti flying around in the countryside.
The mosquito can carry the Zika virus which is gripping Brazil and the Americas and can cause babies to be born with abnormally small heads and brains....

To begin Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are not natives species. They are invasive species. Eradicate them without concern. Searches for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus for eradication has to occur at least every seven to eight days or after a rain event. Ask the state entomologist to validate that rigorous a program.

Mosquito eggs can lay dormant for a year. 

There should also be a vaccine program for Dengue Fever as well. We know viruses are on the move via their vectors on a warming planet. Dengue Fever could make it's way to the same latitudes as Zika. These mosquitoes are being found in the UK. That is at least at 55.3781 degrees north latitude and 3.4360 west longitude. The United States is at least 37.0902 degrees north latitude and 85.7129 degrees west longitude.

These mosquitoes are becoming a global/cosmopolitan species. That northward movement is due to Earth's warming. 

The two mosquitoes have similar life cycles below. The reference O2 indicates the dormant eggs still require O2 to survive. The word tension has to do with the presence (air pressure) of O2 in the environment where the eggs find themselves. The reason the eggs react to a drop in O2 tension is because it indicates water is present. Water has O2 in it, but, not in the same way it is present in air. The species breaths O2 and water deprives the egg of the O2 normally in air. The presence of water triggers the growth of the mosquito. That growth to maturity happens in about 9 days. That is why the eradication has to occur 7 70 8 days. 

Eggs are laid singly on the sides of water-holding containers (click here) such as tires, animal watering dishes, birdbaths, flowerpots and natural holes in vegetation (Hawley 1988). They are black and oval with a length of 0.5 mm. Eggs can withstand desiccation up to one year. Larval emergence occurs after rainfall raises the water level in the containers. The eggs may require several submersions before hatching (Hawley 1988). Additionally, oxygen (O2) tension greatly affects egg hatch (Hawley 1988). A number of studies have shown low O2 tension stimulates the hatching of Aedes albopictus eggs and is a more important factor than flooding or temperature on inducing egg hatch (Hawley 1988). Development is temperature dependent, but the larvae usually pupate after five to ten days and the pupal stage lasts two days (Hawley 1988). Larvae, also called wigglers, are active feeders. They feed on fine particulate organic matter in the water. The larvae use a breathing siphon to acquire oxygen and must periodically come to the surface to do so. The larvae develop through four instars prior to pupation. Unlike many other insects, the pupae of mosquitoes are active and short-lived. They do not feed but can move about....

Aedes aegypti lay their eggs in containers such as bottles, tires, fountains, barrels, and pots. By removing these habitats, mosquitoes have fewer opportunities to lay eggs. This strategy is called source reduction.


Could safer insecticides be used to kill mosquitoes? Bioinsecticides are a combination of biological controls and insecticides. One example of a bioinsecticide is Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), which is a naturally occurring soil bacterium that can effectively kill mosquito larvae present in water.

Below is a diagram of a trap. All theses mechanisms of control are in the "Nature" article linked to Figure 1. 

Good luck.