Sunday, January 10, 2016

I am not endorsing this particular set of data, however, this is the type of discussions that will prove helpful for the public.

Single time constant, (click here) 2.5% per annum, exponential decline model gives an excellent fit between emissions (LH scale, coloured bands) and actual atmosphere (RH scale, black line). This confirms Roger Andrew’s assertion from a couple of weeks ago that it was possible to model sequestration of CO2 from the atmosphere using a single decline constant. The Blue wedge at bottom is the pre-1965 emissions stack that is also declined at 2.5% per annum. The half life of ~27 years is equivalent to a residence time for CO2 of 39 years, slightly but not significantly different to Roger’s result.

Gone are the days when government operates without question. The facts on climate have been so oppressed for so long because right wing politicians simply didn't want to deal with it, circumstances have gotten far worse since the 1960s. If measures were taken then to address energy sources and auto emissions the world would not even be worried about a warming Earth. That is the truth and the technology today was available in the 1960s if the USA cared enough to develop it. At least California wasn't blind to the truth. If California wasn't leading the way regardless of the propaganda, the USA would still be wondering why all the drought.

Speaking of drought:

June 17, 2015
By Tracy Loew
Salem, Ore. — Oregon Gov. Kate Brown (click here) has declared drought emergencies in four more Oregon counties, bringing the total to 19.
That's more than half of the state's 36 counties and the most since 2002, when 23 counties experienced drought emergencies.
"Oregon is only just beginning to face what will likely be an unprecedented wildfire season and drought," Brown said in a statement.
Brown used the announcement to push for a $56 million package in her proposed budget that would fund a statewide water resources program...

There were comments about private land ownership in the USA. There are plenty of land owners in the USA that own tracks of land.
October 25, 2012
By Nancy Keates

He's from Kentucky, (click here) makes his own bourbon, drives a Ford pickup—and flies in a private plane.
These are some of the few details that have emerged about Brad Kelley, 55, a deeply private billionaire who made his fortune in the discount cigarette business. Mr. Kelley, whose hobbies include breeding rare, exotic animals, very rarely gives interviews. He doesn't tweet or use email.
He is also one of the largest private landowners in the country, spending by his own account hundreds of millions of dollars on about a million acres—or about 1,600 square miles... 

US Representative stated the President is going to create a monument of the Owyhee Canyonlands in Malheur County. That name "Malheur" turns up a lot in this part of Oregon. But, to address the Congressman's complain, there is no reason to complain.

September 10, 2015
By Larry Meyer
Vale — The Malheur County Court (click here) has added its voice to the Owyhee Canyonlands debate, which is heating up.
The court adopted a resolution Wednesday opposing any move to create a new national monument to include the Owyhee Canyonlands or establish any other national monument, national conservation area or wilderness area on public lands within southern Malheur County.
The Oregon Natural Desert Association’s Owyhee Canyonlands Conservation Proposal seeks to protect public land in the county through a combination of National Conservation Area, wilderness, and wild and scenic river designations....

Ready for this? All this fuss over nothing. The President is absolutely correct. It is all politics. There is absolutely no reason why the Owyhee Canyonlands (click here) should not be a national monument.

Let me add one more thing about the lands in both these eastern regions of Oregon.

If there are droughted lands or over developed lands where rivers run, how is California going to solve it's drought problems. (click here)

The westerns states, whether they like it or not, are sometimes linked when it comes to climate and water supplies. There are healthy rivers right now in eastern Oregon. The Bureau of Land Management has it as it's jurisdiction. Those rivers are more valuable then gold. Until California and Earth are clearly out of the woods with this episode of anthropogenic warming they should be left alone. This are very healthy rivers. Leave it alone for now. No one is trying to go out of their way to be mean. The USA has to manage it's land with clear goals to prevent hardship for it's people and agriculture. The USA can feed the world today. That reality has to be respected.

There are many private companies involved in USA forests.

The management of our forests is very decentralized. The private forests are also considerable. It is not just government spending and tree huggers. That is very old propaganda. That propaganda has served the Republicans for decades ever since scientists had found in their research a warming planet was anthropogenic.

Isn't anyone happy there is something we can do about this?



I don't know exactly how to weave all this together so I'll just put it together as "Important Links."

According to Greg Walden applying the 5 year minimum sentence is too harsh for men convicted of arson in his district. Evidently, there was a retiring judge that decided the five year mandatory was inappropriate. The judge's ruling would be overturned to enforce the five year mandatory.

I look at like this. If an arsonist is in prison for five years it gives the burned forest time to recover.

Then Rep. Walden went on to endorse five year minimums for arsonists in LA that burns shrubbery. Evidently, only the 'hoodlums' in the cities are the sincere problem, not the good people who happen to be arsonists, in the wilderness. Evidently, Rep. Walden thinks there are different rules for Red Districts in Oregon..

Rep. Walden might want to reflect on the fact the federal government prosecuted it's own when a forest ranger set a fire IN THE WILDERNESS.
What kind of legislator simply looks the other way when any type of fire is dangerous?

Fire kills. End of discussion regarding Rep. Walden's idea of justice.

Oregon also has it's own Department of Forests. Again, this is about western Oregon near the Pacific Ocean and not where Rep. Walden hales from.

January 8, 2016
Contact:Nick Hennemann, Public Affairs Specialist, Salem, 503-945-7248

On March 9, (click here) the Oregon Department of Forestry will recognize the 2015 Operators of the Year for responsible, innovative, proactive work that protects natural resources. The winners are WyEast Timber Services LLC of Hood River, Giustina Land & Timber Co. of Eugene, Hull-Oakes Lumber Co. of Monroe, and R&R King Logging Inc. of Florence.
To encourage this work, the Board of Forestry annually recognizes people and entities that consistently meet or exceed the Forest Practices Act requirements to: replant forests; harvest responsibly; reduce landslide risks to improve public safety; protect stream buffers; build and maintain roads to protect streams; preserve and protect water quality; and protect and enhance wildlife and fish habitat.
Regional Forest Practices Committees select the Operators of the Year and Merit Award recipients. Acting Private Forests Division Chief Lena Tucker said, “These are the best of the many operators who regularly perform above what the law requires to protect natural resources. We’re pleased to honor this exemplary work.”
WyEast Timber Services earned the Eastern Oregon Area Operator of the Year award for improving two parks, Rock Creek and Punch Bowl Falls. WyEast and Mosier city officials created a strategic plan to help prevent bark beetles from damaging more trees. In Rock Creek Park, WyEast removed specific trees and navigated complex urban issues like powerlines, traffic and hiking trails to meet city goals and create a healthier forest. On the Punch Bowl Falls project, Western Rivers Conservancy hired WyEast to promote forest health by removing damaged and diseased trees and create space for growing larger trees while protecting Hood River’s west and middle forks, which contain protected salmon species. Western Rivers Conservancy then gave the land to the county.,,, Video:

WyEast Timber Services LLC of Hood River has a website on Facebook. It shows the operations of this modern logging company. 

The arsonists and misinformed voters find it convenient to complain about forest management. Arsonists can scare the daylights out of voters and of course they are going to blame someone. They blame the government because it plays well with Republican politicians.

The state forest management tries it's best with outreach to citizens/voters.

Below is from the definition:

Article 4.1 An article of the Convention stipulating general commitments assumed by all Parties, developing or developed.

Below is from the definitions:
Article 4.2
An article of the Convention stating the specific commitments of developed-country (Annex I) Parties only -- notably that they would take measures aimed at returning greenhouse-gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000.

Below are Article 4.1 and 4.2 from Kyoto Protocol:

Below is from the definitions:

Article 6 Supervisory Committee
A committee providing international oversight of "track-two" joint implementation projects. Joint implementation projects are carried out by sponsoring and recipient developed countries under Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol -- with the recipient likely to be a country with an "economy in transition". Track-two is used if one or both of the countries does not meet requirements for the standard ("track one") joint implementation programme. See track two.

From the Kyoto Protocol - Track two also known as Joint Implementation:

The mechanism known as “joint implementation,” defined in Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol, allows a country with an emission reduction or limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to earn emission reduction units (ERUs) from an emission-reduction or emission removal project in another Annex B Party, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting its Kyoto target. Joint implementation offers Parties a flexible and cost-efficient means of fulfilling a part of their Kyoto commitments, while the host Party benefits from foreign investment and technology transfer....

Everyone can put alway their crying towels. The way 'it used to be' is not the way it is now.

I remember the very first time I saw one of these forest destroyers at work. I was astonished by this machine. I never realized how far the logging industry had come to facilitate greed.

The people of the northwest USA, including Oregon, long for the good 'ole days, all the back to the 1980s. Those days are gone. There aren't teams of loggers coming into the coffee house or diner at lunch time or after work. There is no such thing anymore as "No Vacancy" at the local inn anymore.

One operate can deforest a square mile of forest so quick that a forest ranger driving up the road and return later would be scratching his head to understand if she or he was in the right place. Except for the wildlife scampering about to try to find a niche for themselves, no one would ever guess just a short time before there was a forest standing there.

President Obama has spoken on many occasions about technology and job loss. That is exactly what has occurred with the logging industry. As soon as the claws close around the girth of a tree it is cut within seconds from it's roots.

I really don't care to hear the sad stories. These jobs were NOT lost because of people hugging trees, they were lost to technology.

You know what amazes me though? How the politics never change. It is  always the sappy whiners of tree huggers that are costing the jobs of good hard working Americans in the logging industry. Still today, House Representatives like Greg Walden cries over the fact their constituents are unhappy regardless of the truth. When does that stop? Never? Republicans are making hay on this mess and no one ever brings awareness to the electorate.

That nice lady in the diner that wants it back the way it was in the 1980s while she is convinced it is the lousy bureaucrats that is the problem, could not be more wrong.  That nice lady intends well, but, it is my guess she has never stepped inside a forest to see the kind of work being done, either in the 1980s or today. All she knows is that ever since the mills closed it hasn't been the same. Yep. I am sure that is the case. But, the mill closure has little to do with DC so much as the industry itself. The old mills of the 1980s could never handle the volume of timber that exists in a single 8 hour work shift today. 

Planting of new forests on lands that historically have not contained forests.

That is fairly straight forward. The focus is historical. The Climate Summit fully expects historical forests will be returned to Earth's mitigation of greenhouse gases. I am sure there are some places where cities now stand, farmers now till and ranchers now run their herds that cannot easily be turned around. But, in all honesty the true Earth had historical forests far different than any managed forest today.

The historical forests resembled the forests of the Amazon, the aged forests of the Northwest USA or the California Redwoods and the Great Sequoias. Earth managed it's greenhouse gas emissions by having land masses covered with these ancient forests. That is a lot of carbon for each majestic tree that stood. That is why the climate summit will be looking to mitigate that loss of carbon sinks with land not historically a forest.

Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) (click here)
An ad hoc coalition of low-lying and island countries. These nations are particularly vulnerable to rising sea levels and share common positions on climate change. The 43 members and observers are American Samoa, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Cape Verde, Comoros, Cook Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Grenada, Guam, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Kiribati, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Nauru, Netherlands Antilles, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Singapore, Solomon Islands, St. Kitts & Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, US Virgin Islands, and Vanuatu.

Their website is interesting. These people look for support by the number of people marching at the climate summits. For small nations they are hopeful there is a global consensus of movement to help them. They are losing everything. The least the global community can do is show their support in numbers of marchers, attendees and the commitments made. These small nations are counting on the global community.

A modification by the COP to the text of the Convention. If consensus cannot be reached, an amendment must win three-quarters of the votes of all Parties present and casting ballots.

That is good parliamentary procedure. Three-quarters is a very strict standard.

Annex I Parties
The industrialized countries listed in Annex I to the Convention, which committed to returning their greenhouse-gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000 as per Article 4.2 (a) and (b). They have also accepted emissions targets for the period 2008-12 as per Article 3 and Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol. They include the 24 original OECD members, the European Union, and 14 countries with economies in transition. (Croatia, Liechtenstein, Monaco, and Slovenia joined Annex 1 at COP-3, and the Czech Republic and Slovakia replaced Czechoslovakia.)

Self defined. These parties are the ones that have worked hard since the beginning to stem the danger of Earth's warming. They should have special status. They have been dedicated and striving the entire time. Their voices are extremely important. They have been doing the work since the beginning and are excellent historians.

Annex II Parties
The countries listed in Annex II to the Convention which have a special obligation to provide financial resources and facilitate technology transfer to developing countries. Annex II Parties include the 24 original OECD members plus the European Union.

Again, self explanatory. If you have read through this edition of the blog kindly realize how far you have come in understanding all that is at work with this Climate Summit. There is a lot to it, isn't there? But, with persistence it can be understood and embraced. We will all make it to the destination. You'll see.

Anthropogenic greenhouse emissions
Greenhouse-gas emissions resulting from human activities.

This is the great evil, is it not? People can modify their lifestyles and dangerous behavior. People know there are heavy air emissions in China's cities and ask for relief from it. People know that cigarette smoking causes lung cancer. Is saving our lives by modifying carbon emissions so difficult? The only difficult part is 'the money.' Those hooked on greed are also very powerful. We need to do better and realize all that is gold is not good. Nor is it of God. Pope Francis would agree.

I thought this was an interesting map.

The pink is the Bureau of Indian Affairs. There are two locations of Native American land.

The yellow is Bureau of Land Management. That is in southeast Oregon where the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge exist. The wildlife refugee does not exist through the entire region that is yellow. The map immediately below shows Oregon and the Malheur National Wildlife Refugee. So, it hardly takes up that entire region of the state.

The maroon color doesn't matter because there is none on the map.

The blue is Department of Defense. There only seems to be one along the northern border near the Columbia River.

The orange is US Fish and Wildlife. There are two areas within that same area where the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge is, too.

The green is for the US Forest Service. That has a significant presence in the state of Oregon, but, the old growth forests in Western part of the Oregon. It is not all the western region either.

The U.S. Forest Service is a quasi-decentralized agency that delegates control to regional and district managers who carry out USFS policies to allow for flexibility and response to local needs. The 155 National Forests, which cover 8.5% of the country, are each broken into several ranger districts. There are more than 600 ranger districts with staffs ranging from 10-100. District rangers and other personnel manage lands for recreational uses such as camping and hiking. They also patrol wilderness areas, regulate grazing, and maintain vegetation and wildlife habitats. District rangers also provide support for the Office of the Forest Supervisor, which coordinates activities between districts, allocates budgets and provides technical support. Forest supervisors oversee the forests themselves, which typically cover a number of districts. There are nine regional offices, each run by a regional forester whose office is supported by forest supervisors and coordinates activities between national forests and Washington.

Mailing Address:

USDA FS, FOIA Service Center
1400 Independence Avenue, SW
Mail Stop:  1143
Washington, DC 20250-1143

USDA Forest Service FOIA Service Center
201 14TH ST SW
Washington, DC 20250-1143

Kindly remember the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge is does not involve the US Forest Service. But, every time there is a mention of the Northwest USA there are always people complaining about the US Forest Service. This wildlife reserve is nothing more than wetlands.

The gray color is the National Park Service (click here). In Oregon the primary National Park interest is Crater Lake National Park. There are some national trails such as Lewis and Clark that occur in Oregon. There are points of interest along those trails.

Meaning of "Ad Hoc" is for the particular end or case at hand without consideration of wider application.

Ad hoc is a word that originally comes from Latin and means “for this” or "for this situation." In current American English it is used to describe something that has been formed or used for a special and immediate purpose, without previous planning.
Ad hoc can be used as an adjective or an adverb. It is used more often as an adjective.

Ad hoc Group on Article 13 (AG13) A subsidiary body (committee) created by COP-1 to explore how to help governments overcome difficulties experienced in meeting their commitments under the Climate Change Convention (1995-1998).

This is my wish list. An Ad Hoc committee to over see the Adaptation, the Adaptation Committee and the Adaptation Funding. To the best of my knowledge the Millennium Assessment did not have such oversight, but, should have.

Ad hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate (AGBM) (click here)
A subsidiary body created by COP-1 to conduct the talks that led to the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol. The AGBM concluded its work on 30 November 1997.

Ad hoc Working Group on further commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) (click here)
The AWG-KP was established in 2005 by Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in Montreal to consider further commitments of industrialized countries under the Kyoto Protocol for the period beyond 2012. More information here.

Ad hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA) (click here)
The AWG-LCA was established in Bali in 2007 to conduct negotiations on a strengthened international deal on climate change.

Ad hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP) (click here)
The ADP is a subsidiary body established at COP 17 in Durban in 2011 to develop a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all Parties. The ADP is to complete its work by 2015 in order to adopt this protocol, legal instrument or agreed outcome with legal force at the twenty-first session of the COP and for it to come into effect from 2020.

These past Ad Hoc Committees were interesting, but, probably didn't get all it's work done. It is included in the definitions so they appear again in the agreement. I hope  there will be consistency across the broad spectrum of global Adjustments.

There are far more countries involved this time so I would expect better outcomes. But, once again, there needs to be scientists on the Ad Hoc Committees. Scientists an squeeze every nickel out of Adjustment Funds. They have a lot of practice using their own budgets and/or their department budgets.

One thing to note at this time is that countries are bringing their own commitments, too. There are no assignments this time as compared to past efforts. The meetings every five years will review the efforts that have worked, others that have been neutral in their outcomes and those that are harmful. That concept is very important. There are 196 countries meeting every five years. There are dearly few that have not offered up their plans for improving emissions.

As time goes by I would expect every country to continue to modify their plans enough to bring a reduction in greenhouse gases to keep them no more than 1.5 percent and under 2.0 percent. Each five years there should be more participation, more expertise and more movement to global emission goals.

Before getting too far off course with what is transpiring in Oregon, let's get our moral compass set straight.

The Malheur Natural Wildlife Reserve is in southeast Oregon. It isn't northwest Oregon where all the Old Growth Forests exist. This is southeast Oregon and this wildlife reserve doesn't have land available for ranching or construction. It is primarily wetlands.

It is 293.4 square miles in size. Rhode Island is 1045 square miles of land area. The wildlife reserve is a nice piece of land, about the size of a quarter of Rhode Island.

This past year the BLM had open sessions for the public to register their observations, opinions and wishes for the future of western Oregon (click here). There was plenty of participation by many groups and private industry. That is an example of what goes on in the USA when the BLM is managing land. There are reviews of any federal program and how that is working by the BLM. I am not sure when there was a comprehensive review of the land at the reserve, but, Fort Collins Science Center out of Colorado does conduct regular reviews of a bird population of Willow Flycatcher. This is not an endangered species, so don't go into some tree hugging scenario. That is NOT what this is.

The reason Fort Collins keeps track of the Willow Flycatcher (click here) is because it catches flies. Why is that important? Because what eats flies in a wetlands? Every fisherman/woman knows this answer. Along rivers that are majority within wild lands without any impact by human activity what is there of interest to tourism?

Fish. Fish are carnivorous. They eat flies. The Willow Flycather is a very hardy bird with extensive ranges. If there was any drop off of Willow Flycather population the BLM or in this case USGS would suspect a problem with the rivers. If there was a problem with the birds, it would be due to a fall off of flies in and around the rivers. It would be suspect of an ecosystem collapse that would be very suspicious. It would have an impact on tourism because the two rivers in the Reserve are nearly pristine and a great place for fishermen and women if they care to.

One more time, these are wetlands. There isn't anything other than tourism that can be conducted on these lands, so what is the problem? Cows? Ranchlands. Only if people want to regularly pull their cows out of the mud.

But, that is the BLM's job, as well as US Fish and Wildlife and USGS. This is what they do and they do it for us. They maintain vigilance of our lands. It is an important job. Those jobs require significant education and in the case of the federal government, plenty of experience. 

I will say this, sometimes when it comes to leases for oil and gas there are oversights that should not occur. That is probably just as true for lands that are logged. The BLM is not perfect. But, the BLM also relies on private groups to understand the problems and register those problems with the agency. That information is passed along to Cabinet Secretaries that don't always value the words of conservationists or environmentalists. But, as a rule the 'evil doers' are not within the agency. The agencies do get their marching orders from others.

The agency jobs of the federal government pay well and have good benefits. There is a good retention rate with US agencies. That is probably true of most state agencies as well. The employees usually like to stay out of trouble with the public. I'll leave it there. But, be reassured the agencies are not responsible for the compete decision making process. The agencies gather information, do studies and maintain records. There are protocols such as "The Five Year Review" of the EPA that are written into law. The federal agencies do a lot of good work, regardless of how politics paints them.

This is the land of the Reserve.

A view of the Steens Mountains from the Buena Vista Overlook located in the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge.

The Donner and Blitzen River (click here) is commonly referred to as the Blitzen. The river rises on the lower slopes near Steens Mountain at an elevation of about 6500 feet. It is located in the high desert region of eastern  Oregon and drains the southern portion of the Harney Basin including the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge. The river terminates into Matheur Lake.

The Donner and Blitzen Rivers were named by American soldiers of German origin. The soldiers crossed the river and there was "thunder and lightning." There are regular episodes of 'dry lighting' along the river depending on the time of year. In the German language, "Donner and Blitzen" means respectively "thunder and lightning (flash)."

How much tourism for the Reserve?

August 27, 2015
A study (click here) of the economic impact of ecotourism and the demographics of ecotourists was conducted at Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon, from June 1993 - May 1994. The study focused on birding ecotourism because that is the primary user group that visits Malheur. A total of 481 questionnaires were completed from a total of about 39,750 annual birding ecotourists. Birders who visit Malheur tended to be middle aged 30s - 40s, well educated 85.4 had attended some college, had incomes that were well above the national family average, and women and men are about equally represented. A majority did not fish or hunt. Visitors came from 28 states, 3 foreign countries, and 30 counties in Oregon. Forty-five percent of visitors were from out of state and 88 (percent) stayed more than one day in the area. Visitors averaged 3.4 days in the area. The average amount spent on their entire trips to and from Malheur averaged about 300 and totaled 12,282,750. The economic impact on the local communities was estimated to be nearly 3.02 million in that year.

That is something to pay attention to. The woman in the diner talked about 'the mills closing.' There might reason for that if there were ever mills in the southeast corner of Oregon.
Adaptation Adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities.

I think this is fairly straight forward. It is a word that has expectations. Let's look at Ethiopia. Historically, Ethiopia was a lush land of all kinds of natural systems. As a matter of fact some of that still remains and is naturally coffee bean forests. Ethiopia is the only place on Earth were Coffea Arabica still occurs naturally.

But, because of the shift in climate and land use that never benefited the people, Ethiopia's land is basically hostile to life. It is estimated even the natural coffee forests will be gone in about two and half decades. That assessment was before this:

January 6, 2016
By Whitney McFerron, Isis Almeida and William Davison

Tekle Birhan (click here) clutched her malnourished infant son as she waited to get a food supplement and treatment at an Ethiopian health clinic in early December. It was their third trip in as many months to the facility, located about an hour’s walk from her family farm that has seen almost no rain since July.
The worst drought in 50 years is eroding harvests of everything from corn to sorghum across Ethiopia, compounding a food shortage for a country where 30 percent of the population subsists on less than $1.25 a day. Already sub-Saharan Africa’s biggest wheat consumer, Ethiopia will need $1.1 billion to buy food for more than 18 million people this year, according to a report by the government and humanitarian partners including the United Nations....

In this case, Ethiopia needs a plan to return it's biome. The entire ecosystem is disrupted and is in a downward spiral. It is one of those negative feedback loops. The people no longer have opportunity to even carry out subsistence farming. The land is not tillable. To ADAPT Ethiopia for beneficial opportunities to bring back benevolence to the country it needs enormous funding. There has to be a hydrological study to begin with to determine where the water is, how climate effects it, where are weather patterns and last but not least, "Where best to we put the dams?

It was only a year or so ago there were floods in Ethiopia. Now, while drought is present, Ethiopia still falls into a climate circumstance that brings rain. If there were dams to capture that water and use it to mitigate the drought, the land would bloom again. Once there was return of plant growth, the land would begin to produce it's own water vapor. When that happens rain can return locally with ever increasing growth with each season.

That is Adaptation. It is seeking out where the climate has caused a deterioration of biomes and reverse that trend.

Adaptation Committee (AC)
The Adaptation Committee was established by the Conference of the Parties as part of the Cancun Agreements (click here) to promote the implementation of enhanced action on adaptation in a coherent manner under the Convention, inter alia, through various functions.

That is obvious. It is one thing to be a scientist and see the future as it needs to be and it is something quite different to gain the cooperation of governments. It is always hoped governments will value sustainability in the way it best benefits the land and people.

Adaptation Fund
The Adaptation Fund was established to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable and are Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The Fund is to be financed with a share of proceeds from clean development mechanism (CDM) (click here) project activities and receive funds from other sources. It is operated by the Adaptation Fund Board (ckick here).
I am quite sure people in The West look at the organizational element of reversing climate change and are extremely skeptical to provide funding. I can understand that. I feel the same way. I wish there was more involvement by donor countries with those receiving the funds. The Adaptation Fund Board should have members of the IPCC engaged as well. There has to be a link between the science and the funding to carry out the science. I don't believe that exists right now and it should.

All the Adaptations need across Earth will be carried out by engineers, but, not without the help and insight of scientists. So why leave the scientists out of any of the plans to move forward. Put scientists in the middle of the plans' funding and make them a supervisor to return function to land. There are highly qualified scientists with excellent reputations considered to be trustworthy that can turn the corner on this.

Once the Adaptations become reality, the land and the poeple will take care of the rest.

Greg Walden, the Republican in the House of Representatives for the people where Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Area exists in Oregon.

What Greg Walden doesn't speak to is the economic benefit of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Area of Oregon.

He defends the Hammonds as people who set backfires. Nice excuse. It doesn't cost a thing to be educated in Oregon for a fire fighter.

DPSST's Fire Certification Section (click here) is responsible for maintaining state fire certification standards set by the Fire Policy Committee and Board on Public Safety Standards and Training, in alignment with National Fire Protection Association standards. This section of DPSST provides formal recognition to members of the Oregon fire service who voluntarily demonstrate required levels of competency. The Fire Certification Section also works, through a network of district liaison officers, to ensure Oregon's local fire department and district training programs meet accreditation requirements.

There are formal requirements for a reason. There is supervision for a reason. Equating arsonists with virtue of setting a backfire is hardly what I would call respecting the law and citizens' safety.

US Rep. Greg Walden wants to complain about the fires. The nice lady in the diner complained about the fires. Both attribute the fires to mismanagement. Excuse me? There was a rancher and his son that were charged with, found guilty of and is now in prison for ARSON.

Arson is a crime. No public land management office or program accounts for arson as a real option for responsible land management.

Perhaps now that the arsonists are behind bars the fires might even stop.

That is amazing to me. How can any US Representative stand on the floor of the USA Congress with sympathy for arsonists while defaming any land management and fire fighter program? Wow. Rep. Walden feeds the myth. He does so votes. That nice lady in the diner will vote for him and believe he is besieged in the Congress with tree huggers.

...DPSST conducts public safety training (click here) throughout Oregon and at the central academy in Salem; certifies qualified officers at various levels from basic through executive; certifies qualified instructors; and inspects and accredits training programs throughout the state based on standards established by the Public Safety Standards and Training Board.... 

"Open Secrets" on Rep. Greg Walden's donations (click here).

Activities implemented jointly (AIJ) Activities carried out under the Convention to mitigate climate change through partnerships between an investor from a developed country and a counterpart in a host country under a pilot phase that ended in the year 2000. The purpose was to involve private-sector money in the transfer of technology and know-how. See also Joint Implementation

This is a new term that clears up all past language. The language needed a braking point whereby the IPCC could identify the past from the present.

There was a lot going on around the turn of the century. In 2001, the IPCC submitted their third comprehensive report (click here).

There was also a Millenium Ecosystem Assessment implemented in 2000 (click here).

...This report synthesizes the take-home messages of the MA (Millennium Assessment) for the business community throughout the industrial and developing world. It begins by highlighting key MA findings with particular relevance for businesses large and small. The report then provides an interpretation of the significance of these findings for business and industry, including a checklist of questions designed to help tailor the general findings of the MA to a particular business....
The word synthesizes is a very big word in these reports. (click here) The link here is from the Fourth IPCC report. I think the year is 2006. It is anticipated the assessment is completed every five years.

Synthesize, synthesizes or in the acronym SYN is where everything comes together to make it work for the people, the environment, governments and the business community. Up to now, the most powerful entity in all this is the business community. One would think, huh? But, this is a global community of varying degrees of democracy and citizen's rights.

There have been problems with the power of the business community. The business community in 2000 was definitely defined by Wall Street.

It isn't about jobs. Much of the global community works at very low pay rates.

It isn't about property rights or taking away land from business opportunities. Many of the countries don't really have personal property rights. They do have national preserves, but, that serves tourism. Those lands are very important for the people of a country. There are plenty of lands available for development for Wall Street.

The problems revolve around the PRACTICES of international companies and their willingness to take advantage of Third World countries. I think we all know what that is about. It is called corruption and it is global. It definitely effects the resolutions to successfully stem the ever increasing threats of the climate crisis.

But, kindly note, the international community, be it the Millennium Assessment, the IPCC or the United Nations in it's multiple capacities has always and in every possible way included the business communities of any country in the SYN.

There is not a scientist alive today that doesn't value quality of life. It is not unusual for a scientist to have good relationships with towns people and/or native tribes. If one talks to a scientist about the place on Earth they carry out their assessments one would be delighted to hear the details they can provide regarding the community.

One of the most popular scientists that demonstrated their relationships with local people is Dian Fossey (click here). While she fought with tribes hired to poach gorillas, she also had very good relationships with the people working for her in her compound.

Additionally, the poaching is a hindrance to tourism. Frequently, people will love the wild lands in the country because of the income they receive from tourism.

Poaching is by and large the worst forms of corruption, next to industrial pollution. But, corruption goes all the way to the top of most government interior departments, including the USA.

These are the complaints.

Yes, these are the Bundy's from Arizona that offered an armed militia as their answer to payment of grazing leases. Leases are leases, the USA has all kinds of leases and they are an income to the USA treasury.

January 9, 2016
By Robert Anglen

Ryan Bundy, one of Nevada rancher Cliven Bundy's sons, is involved in the armed takeover of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge. 

God, patriotism and militia support (click here) led him to Oregon wildlife refuge standoff against the federal government, he said....

...What drove the Arizona business owner to think he could defend a family he'd never met in a small ranching community on a windswept range he'd never visited was a mixture of religion, patriotism and anti-government fervor. In videos posted on YouTube and other social-media sites this month, he would explain that he was there because American values and a Western way of life were under threat.
God told him the cause was righteous, Bundy said. And militia members told him they would back him up....

According to the reporting in this You Tube video by RT, the local citizen working in the diner stated, there were reasons to be upset with the federal government, but, did not approve of the methods.

I found the local sheriff more than kind and willing to listen. That is the strength of the situation. I really believe the Sheriff is interested in what the local citizens have to say, with or without the Bundys.

Definitions. Some are self explanatory. Some are not self expanatory and it is easier to add understanding while examining the defintions.

 I think it is necessary to work through the definitions before reading the 2015 Summit agreement. The list is not very long. It doesn't matter to me how long this might take during an election year. This is important and paramount to life on Earth.

I will include current events within this progression of information. I will also enter a few concepts that will provide a more realistic understanding of greenhouse gases and the state of play.

This week I will address the gross misinformation of the militia in Oregon. The reasons for their actions are based in ignorance of the facts and resultant economics.

Assigned amount unit (AAU) A Kyoto Protocol unit equal to 1 metric tonne of CO2 equivalent. Each Annex I Party issues AAUs up to the level of its assigned amount, established pursuant to Article 3, paragraphs 7 and 8, of the Kyoto Protocol (click here). Assigned amount units may be exchanged through emissions trading.

The main focus of this definition is the "1 metric tonne (tonne is another word for metric ton or 1000 kilograms or 2200 pounds - grammatically tonne is a more widely recognized scientific measurement (click here)) of CO2."

CO2 is the primary focus of the climate summit simply because it has been 86 percent of all the greenhouse gases in Earth's troposphere where infrared is produced causing the warming. That is not double talk, that is real. CO2 has been 86% of the greenhouse gases of concern.

Carbon dioxide (CO2), by definition, has an (GWP - Global Warming Potential) AAU (AAU is a new acronym and better defines the global warming potential) of 1 regardless of the time period used, because it is the gas being used as the reference.

Methane (CH4) is estimated to have an AAU of 28-36 over 100 years.

Those two compounds, CO2 and CH4, are often comparisons used when discussing greenhouse gases.

The picture to the left are the gases that scientists are most concerned with when it comes to Earth's stable atmospheres.

Easily noted are HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons - click here). These are the gases that destroy ozone in the upper atmosphere. Ozone protects us from the sun's harmful rays. They are not greenhouse gases exactly, but, they are ozone depleting substances.

PFCs are perfluorocarbons. These are also fluorinated gases artificially produced. The fluorinated gases in Earth's atmosphere today have no natural source. The fluorinated gases are all generated as by products to human activity. PFCs are often considered to be "immortal gases," because they stay in Earth's atmosphere for so long.

The fluorinated gases of which there are four types are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3).  They get lumped in with better known greenhouse gases because they have high AAUs. As an example SF6 has an AAU of 22,800. Yes, that is correct. Twenty-two thousand, eight hundred Assigned Amount Units. These fluorinated gases are produced and are not natural. They have high AAUs and pose a very big danger to Earth, because, they last in Earth's atmosphere for a very long time; far longer than the traditional greenhouse gases. It is vital to monitor the fluorinated gases and the ozone as well.

I'll get into all this later.

Scientists have set carbon dioxide as number 1 in defining of what a greenhouse gas it and is not. CO2's role with Earth's climate is a thermal unit. The degree CO2 insulates Earth is a thermal component to the infrared radiation of Earth. That infrared is not up for negotiation. Earth's has it's own physics in this galaxy and gratefully it doesn't change WITHOUT being acted on as in human activity. That is a good thing. CO2 is a very, very stable compound. In that is the overwhelming safety for life on Earth. We can all count on Earth being a friendly planet because of it's very stable climate producing greenhouse gases.

In referring to the Kyoto Protocol the Annex I Parties are listed on this webpage (click here). The Annex I of the 2015 Summit is very different. There are many more countries taking place in the summit. I am sure the parties list will be in the agreement while we work through the agreement.

Refers to reducing the degree or intensity of greenhouse-gas emissions.

There are all kinds of use of the word abatement in language and it is used correctly in the definition of greenhouse gas emissions.

An act whereby a State becomes a Party to a treaty already negotiated and signed by other States; has the same legal effect as ratification.

Here again the 2015 Climate Summit Agreement clarifies it's language. Accession is the formal acceptance of the agreement.

I find it interesting the definitions are basically clarifying any misuse of words as in the past. There is no misuse of words and it follows the lines of good science. Definitions are clear, concise, understood diplomatically and applicable without confusion to the many languages at this summit.
It's Saturday Night

The Oregon occupation of public lands is wrong. It is against the law and their facts are not educated. The militia states they are acting on behalf of the people of the region. The people have a false dialogue regarding logging. 

Ah, the good 'ole days. Hard working men, tiger tooth saws, mule teams to the river and floating logs to the ports for transport. That doesn't exist anymore. Today, there are far fewer men, they are nearly as hard working and there are logging roads instead of floating trees.

As a matter of fact, the logging industry of the 1980s is gone, but, not because of forest mismanagement.

I know
Where you stand
In the trees
And that's
Where I am
In the trees
Why won't you speak?
Where I happen to be
In the trees
Standing cowardly
I can feel your breath
I can feel my death
I want to know you
I want to see
I want to say
I know
Where you stand
In the trees
And that's
Where I am
In the trees
Why won't you speak?
Where I happen to be
In the trees
Standing cowardly
I can feel your breath
I can feel my death
I want to know you
I want to see
I want to say Hello

Not funny. USA Navy has the right to shoot down incoming missiles regardless the country.

The USA Navy is not shackled by the Commander and Chief to respond to incoming missiles or any other hostile actions. There is a fine line between defense or retaliation. Every USA military unit or ship is completely within their power to defend themselves.

Make no mistake. Every USA asset deployed at home or abroad can defend itself. Iran hasn't seen that side of the USA Navy. They have seen the disarming of Libya. There were some attempts by terrorists to completely disable the USA Navy with the damage to the USS Cole, however, the middle east should not take the USA Navy for granted when playing with it's 'safe travel' through the region in international and/or allied waters.

January 10, 2016
By Will Dunham

The U.S. Navy (click here) released black-and-white video on Saturday it said was taken by an American helicopter showing an Iranian Revolutionary Guards vessel firing unguided rockets on Dec. 26 near warships including the aircraft carrier USS Harry S Truman in the Strait of Hormuz.
Iran on Dec. 31 denied that its Revolutionary Guards vessels had launched the rockets as the United States claimed, with a Revolutionary Guards spokesman saying the "false" accusation was "akin to psychological warfare."
The U.S. Navy said the infrared radar footage showed an Iranian "fast inshore attack craft" launching several rockets on Dec. 26 "in close proximity" to the Truman, the guided missile destroyer USS Bulkeley, the French naval frigate FS Provence and commercial ships in the busy waterway.
The dispute underscored the ongoing tensions between the United States and Iran despite last year's international agreement to curb Iran's nuclear program....

I would not fire across a USA Navy ship. I would expect USA aircraft to be aloft from here forward while traversing waters where this level of threat (be it accident or intended) has been demonstrated. The 23 minutes of notification to Iranian missile launch was not a mistake. It is all brinkmanship at the same time North Korea has a questionable nuclear exercise that came with no notice.