Friday, December 04, 2015

The movie theater thing is real and it should be taken seriously, BUT, it is not related to the attacks of two days ago. These are unrelated and are inspired. Mimics happen. Mimics happen all the time. Mimics happen in crime and when the subject of suicide is reported. I know that for a fact because I did research many moons ago about the mimicking of suicide after it was reported in the media. People project into common events and then receive permission to act it out just like the person/group/angry young men reported in the media.

The movie theater is a mimic. It is still a serious issue.

Twenty-five years growing up in Saudi Arabia shapes a person's character.

Prayer beads are shown inside the home of suspects Syed Rizwan Farook and Tashfeen Malik in Redlands, California December 4, 2015, following Wednesday's attacks. The FBI is investigating this week's massacre of 14 people by the married couple in as an act of terrorism, officials said on Friday, noting that the female shooter had pledged allegiance to the leader of a militant group Islamic State.

December 4, 2015
Mehreen Zahra-Malik

Tashfeen Malik's path to accused mass killer (click here) in California began in a small city on the Indus River in Pakistan's Punjab province.
It was from here, when she was a toddler, that she moved with her father Gulzar 25 years ago to Saudi Arabia, where he became more deeply religious, more conservative and more hardline, according to a family member.
A picture slowly emerged on Friday of the role and possible motivations of 27-year-old Malik in this week's killing of 14 people in California, including her apparent pledge of allegiance to the leader of the Islamic State militant group, according to U.S. officials.
Malik, with her husband Syed Rizwan Farook, 28, is accused of storming a holiday party on Wednesday in San Bernardino, California, and opening fire in America's worst mass shooting in three years....'

The lawyers for the family are not talking to the American public. They are talking to some folks, but, it isn't Americans.

The MOTHER. Evidently, the mother/grandmother was living in the house with Mr. and Mrs. Farook. Walk a mile. What was she suppose to do? If she was living with her son, she wasn't self-supporting. She has a grandchild. What is that woman suppose to do?

I think she should have done things differently, but, it isn't easy for some people to make that decision.

Additionally, I think the couple believed they were going to live through the attack and return home. Basically, they did.

I would not be surprised that Farook believed he was going to attend work the next day and simply go through life as if nothing happened. I think Tashfeen believed she would be home to put her baby for a nap.

Tashfeen was raised with Wahhabism.

Additionally, the latest reporting I read about Baghdadi is that he is hiding. He is believed to have left his residence and taken up a life of hiding from jets and guns pointed at him. So, if she was posting something to her ideology, he would not have known it. 

I think what we are seeing in California is the same as what transpired in Canada, too. Self-radicalized citizens. Farook was a citizen of the USA. Tashfeen was a member of an extremely conservative family in Saudi Arabia. Then she comes here. How many women 'on the block' wore veils and burkas? How about none? "OMG, it is true the demon serpent lives in the USA." 

Would she help her husband take revenge on people she was convinced were the Devil, especially when she believed they were going to get away with it? A lot of magical thinking can occur if one is devotely faithful with god on their side. 

These kind of PERSONAL attacks for revenge happens everyday in countries where people live in poverty where Muslims live. The victims to the violence were known to the Farooks. This is more a work place violence straight out of the third world culture of middle east. This wasn't a cell waiting for orders from Baghdadi. 

Baghdad, Iraq has a terrible problem with violence just like this. "You hit me, I hit you." That is exactly what happened in San Bernardino. The Farooks believed they were going to cause maximal damage and then return home, unload the van, put the baby's car seat back in the rear seat, have dinner that Mama prepared for a busy couple that went to the doctor's appointment, put baby into the crib for the night and then go to bed together. That is what happened here. There is no global influence. This is the reality of Muslims and Christians in the impoverished middle east. 
Jeb Bush doesn't know what he is talking about. FOX News. He was terrible. When he doesn't know how to contextualize an issue he falls back to Republican rhetoric. He is as much an empty suit as Romney was.

Over so soon?

Vladimir had a news conference the other day and stated he has no problem or animosity with the USA, but, the USA has a problem and animosity with Russia. Basically, a unilateral issue for Russia.

I am sure it makes for interesting politics. 

But, he also stated the USA approach in Syria was erroneous. I can see why he might say that because oil tankers were exempt from bombing for a long time. It almost appeared to be corruption in countries receiving the Daesh oil while bombing them at the same time.

December 4, 2015
Russian prosecutors (click here) have determined the activities of a U.S.-funded NGO to be "undesirable", paving the way for the U.S.-Russia Foundation for Economic Advancement and the Rule of Law (USRF) to be banned on Russian territory.
A spokeswoman for the Russian Prosecutor-General's Office said on December 4 that the Justice Ministry had been ordered to register USRF in line with controversial legislation signed by President Vladimir Putin in May.
The spokeswoman said the group had funded NGOs in Russia deemed by authorities to be "foreign agents" and had engaged in "political activities."
She said the president of the USRF had been banned from entering Russia until 2025....

In 2008, (click here) USRF was registered as a not-for-profit corporation in the United States and in early 2009 USRF was established in Russia as an affiliate of the US organization.

  • 1993/94: Russian American Enterprise Fund (RAEF) & Fund for Large Enterprises (FLEER) established in Russia
  • $330 million of U.S. taxpayer money committed to the effort
  • 1995 - RAEF & FLEER were merged into TUSRIF
  • From investments, sales, and reinvestments over the 17 years – TUSRIF has put more than $1 billion into Russia's economy
  • In 2004-2005 TUSRIF began sell off investments
  • 2005: TUSRIF recommendation to U.S. White House & Congress: Create USRF
  • 2008: U.S. White House and Congress adopted TUSRIF recommendations – President Putin agreed
  • 2008: USRF Established – Continues U.S. Russia partnership efforts in Enterprise & Rule of Law
  • 2009 – the Moscow office was opened...

Saudi Arabia always condemns attacks that kill other innocent people, but, I sure wish it would end the strick hate that exists within the faith.

For more than two centuries, (click here) Wahhabism has been Saudi Arabia's dominant faith. It is an austere form of Islam that insists on a literal interpretation of the Koran. Strict Wahhabis believe that all those who don't practice their form of Islam are heathens and enemies. Critics say that Wahhabism's rigidity has led it to misinterpret and distort Islam, pointing to extremists such as Osama bin Laden and the Taliban. Wahhabism's explosive growth began in the 1970s when Saudi charities started funding Wahhabi schools (madrassas) and mosques from Islamabad to Culver City, California.

Here are excerpts from FRONTLINE's interviews with Mai Yamani, an anthropologist who studies Saudi society; Vali Nasr, an authority on Islamic fundamentalism; Maher Hathout, spokesperson for the Islamic Center of Southern California; and Ahmed Ali, a Shi'a Muslim from Saudi Arabia. (Also see the Links and Readings section of this site for more analyses of Wahhabism and Saudi Arabia.)...

4 December 2015
Cairo: A Molotov cocktail (click here) hurled at a Cairo restaurant killed 16 people and wounded two on Friday, Egyptian security officials said.
One of the officials said the attacker was an employee who had been fired from the restaurant in the Agouza area in the center of the Egyptian capital.
Victims of the blast were burned to death or died from smoke inhalation in the establishment. The restaurant, also a nightclub, was located in a basement, offering no escape route, the officials said.
Islamist militants have claimed a number of bombing and shooting attacks in Egypt, mostly against members of the security forces since the army toppled President Mohamed Mursi of the Muslim Brotherhood in 2013 after mass protests.

The "Arab News" has no kind words for the violence.

...They didn’t know (click here) he was busy with his wife building pipe bombs and stockpiling thousands of rounds of ammunition for the commando-style assault Wednesday on a gathering of Farook’s colleagues from San Bernardino County’s health department.
“This was a person who was successful, who had a good job, a good income, a wife and a family. What was he missing in his life?” asked Nizaam Ali, who worshipped with Farook at a mosque in San Bernardino.
Authorities said that the couple sprayed as many as 75 rounds into the room before fleeing and had more than 1,600 rounds left when they were killed. At home, they had 12 pipe bombs, tools to make more explosives and well over 4,500 rounds, police said.
Police Lt. Mike Madden, one of the first officers to reach the room, said the carnage was unspeakable, the scene overwhelming: the smell of gunpowder, the wails of the wounded the blood, fire sprinklers going off and fire alarms blaring. All in a room with a Christmas tree and decorations on every table.
The dead ranged in age from 26 to 60. Among the 21 injured were two police officers hurt during the manhunt, authorities said. Two of the wounded remained in critical condition Thursday....

Saudi Arabia is hosting the SNC, but, there are shifting baselines as to who is attending and what will result for the Kurds.

4 December 2015
By Arab News

...Hassan Abdul Azeem, (click here) general coordinator of the SNC, said: “The Riyadh Conference is important and the coalition wants to ensure it is successful.”
Saleh Muslim, president of the Kurdish Democratic Union Party, was quoted as saying that the conference needs to have representatives of all groups. There has also been some controversy, with Turkey stating that it did not want Muslim, and the former president of the SNC Ahmed Jaraba to be part of the opposition delegation. In addition, the Syrian Democratic Forces did not receive an invitation to attend the conference.
There has been some confusion on who would attend the conference, with the SNC reportedly sending two separate lists of names, one from the SNC President Khaled Khojah and the other from his political committee.
Saudi Arabia has invited 65 Syrian opposition leaders and members to the conference from Dec. 11 to 14 in Riyadh to unite the opposition ahead of new peace talks, a key issue in stepped up efforts to end the nearly five-year civil war.
It marks an attempt to bring together groups whose disunity has been a long-standing obstacle in seeking a peaceful solution to the conflict that has killed more than 250,000 people and displaced millions. Iran, however, has insisted some of the opposition groups are terrorists....

Saudis would benefit from open expression of acceptance in DIVERSITY. No one is required to give up their religion, but, acceptance of others different from the strict Wahhabism.

27 November 2015

A year before the 9/11 outrage, terror came to the Kingdom. It started in central Riyadh when two British nationals were murdered with a car bomb. From then on, the terrorist campaign grew with truck bombings and suicide attacks. It reached a peak in 2004. Thereafter, there was a steady decline as the Kingdom learned how to counter the men of violence in its midst.
In the end, a tough security clampdown broke the back of terrorism. The fight-back was helped significantly by the offer of pardons and rehabilitation to terrorists with no blood yet on their hands. Throughout the hunt for terror cells, ordinary citizens played a crucial role. They were encouraged to report suspicious behavior, to watch for something, anything in their neighborhoods which did not seem quite right. And they responded in their thousands.
The Kingdom then, as now, was revolted by the barbarity of the killers. The second terror campaign which began in Eastern Province this year has rekindled that revulsion. The bombings of Shiite mosques while people were at prayer were heinous crimes.
All Saudis were appalled. Many hurried across the country to attend the funerals of the victims....

That is trauma. Being alarmed and racing to help is a result of trauma. The people of Saudi Arabia are good and generous people. They love life and they love god. It would be better for even the least of the Saudi people to enjoy the difference in cultures can bring.

Perhaps communities could hold small parties of diversity in parks and at schools. A good way to break through cultural divides is with food and entertainment such as dancing or poetry. It is something the leaders of these great people should consider. Pilgrimages are fine and I know there is an economy surrounding the worship. But, perhaps celebrations of diversity would add a softer side to the ideation of the pilgrimage to dispel any estrangement into hate and violence.
18 U.S.C. § 2331 defines "international terrorism" and "domestic terrorism" for purposes of Chapter 113B of the Code, entitled "Terrorism”:
"International terrorism" means activities with the following three characteristics:
  • Involve violent acts or acts dangerous to human life that violate federal or state law;
  • Appear to be intended (i) to intimidate or coerce a civilian population; (ii) to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; or (iii) to affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping; and
  • Occur primarily outside the territorial jurisdiction of the U.S., or transcend national boundaries in terms of the means by which they are accomplished, the persons they appear intended to intimidate or coerce, or the locale in which their perpetrators operate or seek asylum.*
"Domestic terrorism" means activities with the following three characteristics:
  • Involve acts dangerous to human life that violate federal or state law;
  • Appear intended (i) to intimidate or coerce a civilian population; (ii) to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; or (iii) to affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination. or kidnapping; and
  • Occur primarily within the territorial jurisdiction of the U.S.
18 U.S.C. § 2332b defines the term "federal crime of terrorism" as an offense that:
  • Is calculated to influence or affect the conduct of government by intimidation or coercion, or to retaliate against government conduct; and
  • Is a violation of one of several listed statutes, including § 930(c) (relating to killing or attempted killing during an attack on a federal facility with a dangerous weapon); and § 1114 (relating to killing or attempted killing of officers and employees of the U.S.).
* FISA defines "international terrorism" in a nearly identical way, replacing "primarily" outside the U.S. with "totally" outside the U.S. 50 U.S.C. § 1801(c).

...until later.

I don't know how a free trade agreement leans so heavily on the WTO of it's language and definitions and is different to bring about trade that is different from the WTO. 

It may be all hot air, but, the impacts to USA local business is obvious and will become the current law of the land. Considering Europe's economies are 90 percent small businesses, I don't know what they are doing harm or good to their economies. It makes no sense to hand a continent's economy over to Wall Street. 

The European agreement is separate from the TPP. Below is a timeline to both the Pacific and Atlantic trade agreements. TPP is orange. If anyone states this agreement was behind schedule, they are lying. TTiP is in blue.

TPP definitions S to W which is the last letter of the definitons..

Safeguards Agreement (click here) means the Agreement on Safeguards, contained in Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement;

When using the WTO glossary or definitions simply click on the first letter of the word. Where am I with the WTO about 12 or 13 WTO references. Every time the WTO is mentioned it only makes me believe this is about nonsense and redundant.
sanitary or phytosanitary measure (click here) means any measure referred to in paragraph 1 of Annex A of the SPS Agreement; 

1. This Agreement applies to all sanitary and phytosanitary measures which may, directly or indirectly, affect international trade. Such measures shall be developed and applied in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

Another WTO reference. 

SCM Agreement means the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, contained in Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement (click here) ;

ANNEX 1A: Mutilateral Agreements on Trade in Goods
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 
Agreement on Agriculture 
Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures 
Agreement on Textiles and Clothing 
Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade 
Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures 
Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 
Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 
Agreement on Preshipment Inspection 
Agreement on Rules of Origin 
Agreement on Import Licensing Procedures 
Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures 
Agreement on Safeguards

Another WTO reference. 

SME means a small and medium-sized enterprise, including a micro-sized enterprise; 

SME is standardized language that is recognized internationally. This similiar to scientific measurements such as inch and millimeter or liter and quart. The language clarifies the definition. It is a legal issue. Standardized international language helps support issues such as trade and alliances.

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) (click here) represent 90% of all businesses in the EU.

I thought the citation above might be interesting. It is another WTO standard.

SPS Agreement means the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (click here), contained in Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement; 

         Reaffirming that no Member should be prevented from adopting or enforcing measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life  or health, subject to the requirement that these measures are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between Members where the same conditions prevail or a disguised restriction on international trade;...

state enterprise means an enterprise that is owned, or controlled through ownership interests, by a Party;

Okay, I have some real problems with the idea of a state enterprise. A country, nation or state has far more resources than an SME and has unfair advantages in the market place.

subheading means the first six digits in the tariff classification number under the Harmonized System;

A Schedule B number is a 10-digit number used in the United States to classify physical goods for export to another country. The Schedule B is based on the international Harmonized System (HS) of 6-digit commodity classification codes. There is a Schedule B number for every physical product, from paperclips to airplanes.

Territory has for each party the meaning set out at Annex 1-A (Party-Specific Definitions); 

Physical geography is purpose to the work territory. However, there is an aspect to the definition below that lends understanding in how Pacific countries argue over islands.
The international community (click here) is formed first and foremost by states, which were defined by Vattel as “political bodies, societies of men who have united together and combined their forces in order to procure their mutual welfare and security”. The element missing from this definition relates to the need for a territorial basis for such political bodies. This necessity, however, is self-evident. As Oppenheim has noted, “a State without a territory is not possible”. This does not mean that territoriality is a criterion of personality in international law, but statehood is inconceivable in the absence of a reasonably defined geographical base. The frontiers of such an entity need not be established beyond dispute, nor is there any prescribed minimum of territory for the existance of a state, but some piece of land is essential before one can accept the establishment and continuation of a state.

textile or apparel good means a good listed in Annex 4-A (Textiles and Apparel Product-Specific Rules of Origin) (click here)

TRIPS Agreement means the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (click here), contained in Annex 1C to the WTO Agreement; 

WTO again.

WTO means the World Trade Organization (click here) (click here) ; and

WTO again.

WTO Agreement means the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (click here - the dates is located at the bottom of the document), done on April 15, 1994

WTO again.

The Parties to this Agreement,
Recognizing that their relations in the field of trade and economic endeavour should be conducted with a view to raising standards of living, ensuring full employment and a large and steadily growing volume of real income and effective demand, and expanding the production of and trade in goods and services, while allowing for the optimal use of the world’s resources in accordance with the objective of sustainable development, seeking both to protect and preserve the environment and to enhance the means for doing so in a manner consistent with their respective needs and concerns at different levels of economic development,...

TPP definitions from O thru R

originating means qualifying under the rules of origin set out in Chapter 3 (Rules of Origin and Origin Procedures) (click here) 

Executive Summary Chapter 3

TPP’s Rules of Origin and Origin Procedures chapter creates rules of origin defining what it means for a product to be originating from TPP partner countries and thereby eligible for TPP benefits. It also creates the mechanisms for enforcing these rules. Together, this makes sure the agreement’s benefits go to TPP Parties that are taking on the Agreement’s high-standard, ambitious obligations. TPP’s strong rules of origin will help remove incentives for U.S. companies to move production abroad and encourage them to keep high-paying jobs in the United States

or Chapter 4 (Textiles and Apparel) (click here);

Executive Summary
TPP’s Textiles and Apparel chapter will create export opportunities for Made-in-America clothes, fabrics, and yarns and support jobs in the United States. This objective is advanced by a “yarn-forward” approach that requires use of yarns and fabrics from TPP countries in end products qualifying for preferential treatment under TPP—with some flexibility so that American businesses and workers whose products depend on inputs not available within the TPP region can still benefit. The yarn-forward approach also will help to develop a regionally-integrated supply chain that will promote long-term growth and investment in this sector in the United States.  The Textiles and Apparel chapter also secures close customs cooperation among TPP Parties to facilitate effective enforcement of the rules; and ensures that U.S. companies have access to temporary relief if an import surge causes, or threatens to cause, serious damage to their business.

Party means any State or separate customs territory for which this Agreement is in force;

There is a separation it would seem between state and custom territory. Islands that are a country's possession?

person means a natural person or an enterprise;

Well, the USA Supreme Court now defines 'an enterprise' as a person in an international treaty. That changes the national standard of many countries and now it pervades the definition 36 percent of the world's GDP.

TPP with 11 other like-minded countries (Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam) that share a commitment to concluding a high-standard, ambitious agreement and to expanding the initial group to include additional countries throughout the Asia-Pacific region

All these countries are willing to allow citizenship to enterprises? That means Wall Street has citizen rights in all these countries

It seems to me this assaults sovereignty and tilts leverage to Wall Street. There aren't PACs in these countries. Some of these countries cannot afford such instruments to resist Wall Street's power in their country. Vietnam is lost to Wall Street's whims. This is toxic and I can't believe enterprises including their money has this kind of global power over sovereign and democratized governments.

There are many, many reasons for members of Congress to defeat this trade agreement. It is overreaching. Absolutely. 

person of a Party means a national or an enterprise of a Party; 

preferential tariff treatment means the customs duty rate applicable to an originating good, pursuant to each Party’s Tariff Elimination Schedule set out in Annex 2-D (Tariff Elimination);

Preferential tariff Treatment is a schedule of lower rates or other advantages over others.

NAFTA had the same provision (click here).


This directive provides policy and instructions for filing claims under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), including post-importation and corrected claims. It also outlines the procedures for processing such claims. This directive should be read in conjunction with 19 CFR 181, Subparts C and D....
NAFTA calls it special or preferential.

Got that? A Party can import products or services with an allowance to 'catch up' with any tariff or tax. Just like filing a new income tax form when errors are made. 

Here is something else.  

What happens "Most Favored Nation" status (MFN)? This has been a policy the USA has used successfully against human rights abuses. This practice by the USA is can be completely dissolved under TPP if enterprises are treated like citizens. Just to note MFN is minimized within the WTO structure. The reason MFN is usually dissolved in trade agreements is to prevent government interference with Wall Street.

recovered material means a material in the form of one or more individual parts that results from:
(a) the disassembly of a used good into individual parts; and
(b) the cleaning, inspecting, testing or other processing of those parts as necessary for improvement to sound working condition;

Material recycled falls under this agreement. There are small businesses that specialize in selling merchandise made from recycled material in the USA. While this is 'nice' I am not convinced American small businesses such as the one that recycles materials can afford marketing and shipping to foreign countries.  

American Small Businesses will have to form a cooperative for the explicit reason of lobbying. The cooperatives can be specialized to the product if there are enough members to carry lobbyists. Cooperatives can be non-profits and have a Board of Trustees to hire employees and set agendas. But, under TPP I don't see a cooperative of small businesses/local economies as an option. Eventually, the cooperative will have to have the capacity to hire lawyers as well. The cost of these activities need to be considered seriously because it might increase costs of marketed products and/or services. 

However, the cooperative will minimize that cost and distribute the cost to member organizations. Non-profits are also allowed to raise money to fund these demands as well. These are not political PACS, but, a non-profit to educate the public about choices and insure ECONOMIC stability. I would think of them as ECONOMIC PACS.

I am also thinking the sovereign borders of a city or town could be included in such a non-profit, but, none of the monies can be used for political purposes. Including a government structure as a member or two members of the Board of Trustees would result in expediency of implementation of the agenda of the organization.   

I think such an organization would fall under C3 and political falls under C4.

Avoid corruption and entities that are unhelpful.
remanufactured good means a good classified in HS Chapters 84 through 90 or under heading 94.02 except goods classified under HS headings 84.18, 85.09, 85.10, and 85.16, 87.03 or subheadings 8414.51, 8450.11, 8450.12, 8508.11, and 8517.11, that is entirely or partially composed of recovered materials and:
(a) has a similar life expectancy and performs the same as or similar to such a good when new; and
(b) has a factory warranty similar to that applicable to such a good when new; 

Remanufactered Goods: An overview of the USA and Global Industries, Markets and Trade (click here) 

Abstract (Page i) 

Remanufacturing is an industrial process that restores end-of-life goods to their original working condition. This report provides an overview of U.S. remanufactured
goods industries and markets, estimates U.S. trade in remanufactured goods, and examines major factors that affected U.S. sales, trade, and investment during 2009–11. The United States is the largest remanufacturer in the world, and between 2009 and 2011, the value of U.S. remanufactured production grew by 15 percent to at least $43.0 billion, supporting 180,000 full-time U.S. jobs. The remanufacturing-intensive sectors that account for the majority of remanufacturing activity in the United States include
aerospace, consumer products, electrical apparatus, heavy-duty and off-road equipment, information technology products, locomotives, machinery, medical devices, motor vehicle parts, office furniture, restaurant equipment, and retreaded tires. U.S. exports of remanufactured goods totaled $11.7 billion in 2011; almost 40 percent of the total went to free trade agreement partners. Foreign remanufacturers that have
invested in the United States account for about one-sixth of U.S. trade in remanufactured goods and cores (the used or discarded component that is remanufactured). Although the United States and Europe currently account for the bulk of remanufacturing activities and associated trade, other countries are developing their own remanufacturing industries. In foreign markets, regulatory barriers, import bans,
and the lack of a common definition of remanufactured goods limit trade in remanufactured goods and cores.

This overview was prepared by (USIT) United States International Trade Commission (click here)

regional level of government has for each Party the meaning set out at Annex 1-A (Party-Specific Definitions):

This is out of Annex 1:

Subject to Legal Review (click here) in English, Spanish and French for Accuracy, Clarity and Consistency Subject to Authentication of English, Spanish and 
French Versions

Ready to learn a few new languages? Local libraries can obtain translation services with or most likely without a fee. Local libraries are supported by local taxes. There are lot of services, including a Reference Librarian, the average small business person doesn't tap for any issue. Reference Librarians are good thing. It is their job to be helpful.

In Annex 1 the definition of "level of government" is e.  REGIONAL is a big deal and so far I haven't run into definitions of regional. But, not to be undone I found something else to bring meaning and clarity to the 'idea' of regional. To my way of thinking as if in the USA this is like the difference between federal and state or state and local government.

...The provincial governments (click here) have a similar constitutional arrangement to the national government and have concurrent power with the latter in areas such as agriculture, business development, town planning, forestry and natural resources. National laws, however, take precedence over provincial laws if there is a conflict. The minister responsible for provincial government and local-level government must deliver a report on the working of the system of provincial governments and local-level governments at least once a year. Local government bodies in Papua New Guinea include local government councils and local government authorities established under the pre-Independence law known as the Local Government Act of 1963.... 

The problem is how does any business person with their own enterprise know if the French and Spanish versions are directly interpreted the same of the English version and vice versa? No language on Earth directly translates EXACTLY to or out of English. It just the way it is. So, where business people run into a hideous idea in new trade agreements, get a copy of the translated provision in all three applications. 

The word that defines the difference in language translation is SYNTAX. Every language has it's own construction.