Sunday, July 23, 2017

Scientists involved in heading off a deadly troposphere beyond what it already is have looked into every type of sequestration in the world. 

May 4, 2015
By Madeline Fisher

For the past 20 years, (click here) researchers have published soil organic carbon sequestration rates. Many of these findings have suggested that soil organic carbon (SOC) can be sequestered in soil, or stored long-term, simply by switching from conventional tillage to no-till systems....

These are all important aspects of knowledge required to maximize the reduction of greenhouse gases, but, think for a minute the idea of simply not producing anymore. The oceans are become acidic in places where shellfish are suppose to thrive.

Greenhouse gases are displacing nitrogen in the soil and to what end, reduced crop production? 

The idea in Kyoto Protocol encouraged these scientific investigations and left no stone unturned, but, the real answer to the increase in greenhouse gases is to not emit them in the first place.

The political sphere likes the idea of accountability by those elected to the countries seats of power, but, never once do those same people hold themselves accountable for deteriorating Earth into the worst possible status to support life since it's birth.

This is just one article about scientists seeking the greatest ability of soil to sequester carbon.

Kindly remember, the idea of greenhouse gas sequestration in soil is a false positive. It is not so much a guaranteed storage place, so much as a FLUX of storage based on the greenhouse gas concentrations in the troposphere.
Simply put, the greenhouse gases in the ocean and land are there through an osmotic effect rather than a storage effect. The one true place carbon and GHGs are STORED is in the growth of trees, the biology of rainforests and the diets of baleen whales.
It's physics.

The large volume of sewage sludge (SS) generated with high carbon (C) and nutrient content suggests that its agricultural use may represent an important alternative to soil carbon sequestration and provides a potential substitute for synthetic fertilizers. However, emissions of CH4 and N2O could neutralize benefits with increases in soil C or saving fertilizer production because these gases have a Global Warming Potential (GWP) 25 and 298 times greater than CO2, respectively. Thus, this study aimed to determine C and N content as well as greenhouse gases (GHG) fluxes from soils historically amended with SS. Sewage sludge was applied between 2001 and 2007, and maize (Zea mays L.) was sowed in every year between 2001 and 2009. We evaluated three treatments: Control (mineral fertilizer), 1SS (recommended rate) and 2SS (double rate). Carbon stocks (0-40 cm) were 58.8, 72.5 and 83.1 Mg ha–1in the Control, 1SS and 2SS, respectively, whereas N stocks after two years without SS treatment were 4.8, 5.8, and 6.8 Mg ha–1, respectively. Soil CO2 flux was highly responsive to soil temperature in SS treatments, and soil water content greatly impacted gas flux in the Control. Soil N2O flux increased under the residual effects of SS, but in 1SS, the flux was similar to that found in moist tropical forests. Soil remained as a CH4sink. Large stores of carbon following historical SS application indicate that its use could be used as a method for carbon sequestration, even under tropical conditions.

Soil erodability. Soil condition is the key to understand.

Friability of soil refers to its crumbly texture, which is somewhere between sand and clay, not so fine and grainy like sand, or so thick and mushy like clay.A handful of friable soil when pressed hard, should form a lump,but the lump can be easily disintegrated.
Friable soil also will drain water very well, but also retain moisture like a wrung out sponge.Soil which is friable, is usually rich in carbon, minerals and organic http://matter. It will have sufficient porosity to allow oxygen to reach the roots.
The need for friable soil:
Plants grown in friable soil will be healthier, will have lush foliage, strong root systems and resistant to diseases and pests. Friable soil has tons of micro-organisms which will keep replenishing the fertility over time.
How to make clay soil friable :
Mix dried and powdered clay soil with equal volumes of coarse river sand and matured compost to retain its texture, keep mulching it with dry leaves, wood chips etc and maintain its moisture.Friable soil will not get hardened in the sun or become a slush in the rain ,the advantage being it also require less watering than clay.

Soil erodibility (click here) is an estimate of the ability of soils to resist erosion, based on the physical characteristics of each soil. Texture is the principal characteristic affecting erodibility, but structure, organic matter and permeability also contribute. Generally, soils with faster infiltration rates, higher levels of organic matter and improved soil structure have a greater resistance to erosion. Sand, sandy loam and loam-textured soils tend to be less erodible than silt, very fine sand and certain clay-textured soils.
Tillage and cropping practices that reduce soil organic matter levels, cause poor soil structure, or result in soil compaction, contribute to increases in soil erodibility. As an example, compacted subsurface soil layers can decrease infiltration and increase runoff. The formation of a soil crust, which tends to "seal" the surface, also decreases infiltration. On some sites, a soil crust might decrease the amount of soil loss from raindrop impact and splash; however, a corresponding increase in the amount of runoff water can contribute to more serious erosion problems....

Erosion is more than a loss of soil, it is a loss of crops, cash to pay the bills, but, also releases whatever tropospheric gases were trapped there. There are several types of erosion, none are good news and this is among the worst, called gully erosion.

...A soil’s physical condition — its degree of compaction, capacity for water storage and ease of drainage — is also critical to soil and plant health. Good soil tilth promotes rainfall infiltration, thereby reducing runoff and allowing moisture to be stored for later plant use. It also encourages proper root development....

...Among the important chemical determinants of a soil’s health are its pH, salt content and levels of available nutrients. Low quantities of nutrients, high levels of such toxic elements as aluminum and high concentrations of salts can adversely affect the growth of your crops. Healthy soils have adequate — but not excessive — nutrients. Excessive available nitrogen can make plants more attractive or susceptible to insects, and overabundant nitrogen and phosphorus can pollute surface and groundwater. Well-decomposed organic matter helps healthy soils hold onto calcium, magnesium and potassium, keeping these nutrients in the plants’ root zone.

The biological, physical and chemical aspects of soils all interact with and affect one another. For example, if your soil is very compact, it will have few large pores and thus will be less hospitable to such organisms as springtails, mites and earthworms. In addition, its lower levels of oxygen may influence both the forms of nutrients that are present and their availability; under anaerobic conditions, for instance, significant quantities of nitrate may be converted to gaseous nitrogen and lost to the atmosphere....

It is necessary to understand the land and it's soils to understand the greenhouse gas content.

A healthy soil produces healthy crops (click here) minimal amounts of external inputs and few to no adverse ecological effects. It contains favorable biological, physical and chemical properties.
Here is the complexity of this issue. On one hand soil can be a great carbon sink. It has processes that welcomes excessive greenhouse gases. There is a study that states carbon dioxide can be incorporated to deeper layers of soil by plowing deeper and exposing the deep soil to air. 
In the picture to the left is a multi-bottom plow. When examined closely the plows are deep into the soil and turning it over to expose that precious and important organic layer. This soil, with this plowing technique is maximally exposed to the troposphere and it's greenhouse gas concentration. That concentration will cause an osmotic effect and bring greenhouse gases into the soil.

biologically healthy soil harbors a multitude of different organisms — microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, amoebae and paramecia, as well as larger organisms like nematodes, springtails, insect larvae, ants, earthworms and ground beetles. Most are helpful to plants, enhancing the availability of nutrients and producing chemicals that stimulate plant growth...
- Breaking down litter and cycling nutrient
- Converting atmospheric nitrogen into organic forms and reconverting organic nitrogen into inorganic forms that plants can use
Nitrogen is the reason the sky of Earth is blue. It disseminates white light into a blue color. The majority of Earth's troposphere is below.
Nitrogen – 78 percent.
Oxygen – 21 percent.
Argon – 0.93 percent.
Carbon dioxide – 0.038 percent.
Nitrogen molecules (N2) are extremely stable. So soil absorbs the N2 and breaks it down to a usable for for plants. Nitrogen is important in plant growth and health. There is actually a nitrogen cycle (see left and click here). Now, displace some of the nitrogen with greenhouse gases. There is no nitrogen in CO2.
That is the real issue. While it is convenient to expose soils to air to absorb greenhouse gases, it also creates a faux cycle in the soil and it can effect plants.

To the left is an example of a plow outside the job it is employed for; the plows come out of the ground just as shiny as if they were new. The work of plowing causes a great deal of friction between the soil and the plow face. The soil literally polishes that metal surface. The pointy end of the plow goes into the ground first and with the shape and size of the face of the plow; it is determined as to the outcome of the effort. 
- Synthesizing enzymes, vitamins, hormones and other important substances 
- Altering soil structuren Eating and/or decomposing weed seeds
- Suppressing and/or feeding on soil-borne plant pathogens and plant-parasitic nematodes
So while soil is a convenient place to store greenhouse gases, it is hardly a good idea. But, desperate scientists trying to find resolve of the issues see soil as a real carbon sink. 

This is why an international agreement is vitally important.


The State Key (click here) Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture was established on the Laboratory of Material Cycling in Pedosphere, Chinese Academy of Sciences, which was established and ratified in 1987 and has been kept open ever since....

Kindly note the serious language of a problem sincerely of concern to China.

...The laboratory is mainly oriented towards studying: 1) evolution of soil resources under intensive human activities and strategies for prevention of their degradation, establishment of a soil resources information system and realization of digital management of the soil resources; 2) soil nutrient supply and principles for and approaches to regulating plant nutrition, set-up a technical system for agricultural cleaner production high in efficient utilization of water and fertilizer; 3) soil pollution and theories and technologies for remediation of polluted soils to ensure soil environment quality; and 4) relations between soil use and environmental changes to explore models for harmonized development of the agriculture and environment...

On 22 June 2017, (click here) Chinese legislators released draft proposals to combat soil pollution in China at a bimonthly session of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. The legislation complements the State Council’s ambitious plan to address soil pollution – an area not specifically covered by Chinese environmental law at present. Both  the Council’s plan and the corresponding draft legislation are a response to a series of highly publicised incidents, including one in Jiangsu Province where nearly 500 school students fell ill after exposure to contaminated soil. These incidents have focused public attention on the issue of soil contamination, which had previously received little attention due to the more obvious air pollution issues in Chinese cities.
Sources and Sinks of Earth's greenhouse gas chambers (click here).

This graph shows the correct way to look at Earth's greenhouse gas compartments. Fossil fuels and land use produce greenhouse gases, while, oceans, the atmosphere and land absorb greenhouse gases. The absorption of the greenhouse gases is not a cure for the climate crisis. As a matter of fact the absorption of the oceans result in acidification. This blog has recorded the horrible problems with the shellfish industries in estuaries and the northwest region of the USA.

July 21, 2017
By John O'Connell

A leading soil health expert (click here) addressed about 70 Caribou County, Idaho, growers regarding the importance of planting multi-species cover crops and maintaining a diversity of living roots in their soils.

Soda Springs, Idaho - While leading a tour of multi-species, dryland cover crop trials in a local farm field, soil health expert Keith Berns uprooted a stunted turnip from a strip in which other plant species were killed by a late-spring cold snap.
Then Berns moved to an adjacent trial plot — covered by a thick and diverse stand of green and flowering vegetation — and plucked a turnip with a softball’s circumference.
Bern’s, the keynote speaker at a July 20 soil health workshop attended by about 70 farmers and sponsored by USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service in Caribou County, explained the demonstration highlights how diversity leads to healthier plants and more productive soil.
Farmers plant cover crops for soil health benefits such as improved water infiltration, nutrient scavenging, weed control, pollinator support, yield gains in subsequent cash crops, organic matter gains and reduced soil compaction. Berns considers it “heart breaking” when a farmer plants a single-species cover crop.
“It’s so difficult to get diversity with our cash crop, but it’s easy to get it with our cover crop,” said Berns, a Bladen, Neb., farmer who sells cover crop seed through Green Cover Seed....
Soil is a living and life-giving natural resource. (click here)
As world population and food production demands rise, keeping our soil healthy and productive is of paramount importance. By farming using soil health principles and systems that include no-till, cover cropping and diverse rotations, more and more farmers are actually increasing their soil’s organic matter and improving microbial activity. As a result, farmers are sequestering more carbon, increasing water infiltration, improving wildlife and pollinator habitat—all while harvesting better profits and often better yields.

The resources on this soil health section of our site are designed to help visitors understand the basics and benefits of soil health—and to learn about Soil Health Management Systems from farmers who are using those systems.

"Soil Health Theater" (click here)
Productive soils, (click here) a favorable climate, and clean and abundant water resources are all essential for growing crops, raising livestock, and for ecosystems to continue to provide the critical provisioning services that humans need.

Poisoning Americans. This is just amazing. Complete indifference by government.

July 21, 2017
By Tracy Loew 

An exemption in Oregon law (click here) will allow a quarter-million tons of pesticide-contaminated farm soil to be reclassified as clean fill dirt after it’s moved to another farm six miles away.

The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality is seeking public comment on the plan, which will allow the late Salem developer Larry Epping’s company to create a 150-acre residential community on the contaminated farm in Northeast Salem.

The pesticide in question – dieldrin – has been banned for nearly 50 years and is so dangerous that if more than one pound enters the environment, the federal government’s National Response Center must be notified immediately.
DEQ says that while the contaminated soil would pose ingestion, inhalation and skin contact hazards for residents of the new community, it would be no more hazardous than existing soil at the farm site. And exposure limits for farm workers are higher than for residents.

"In this case, it was the best and least expensive way to deal with the soil," said Nancy Sawka, a project manager in DEQ’s cleanup section. "Otherwise it would cost quite a bit of money to put it in the landfill.”Oregon Department of Agriculture officials, however, expressed concerns....

...Aldrin and dieldrin (click here) can enter the environment from accidental spills or leaks from storage containers at waste sites. In the past, aldrin and dieldrin entered the environment when farmers used these compounds to kill pests on crops and when exterminators used them to kill termites. Aldrin and dieldrin are still present in the environment from these past uses. Sunlight and bacteria in the environment can change aldrin to dieldrin. Therefore, you can find dieldrin in places where aldrin was originally released. 

Dieldrin in soil or water breaks down (degrades) very slowly. Dieldrin sticks to soil and may stay there unchanged for many years. Water does not easily wash dieldrin off soil. Dieldrin does not dissolve in water very well and is therefore not found in water at high concentrations. Most dieldrin in the environment attaches to soil and to sediments at the bottoms of lakes, ponds, and streams. Dieldrin can travel large distances by attaching to dust particles, which can then be transported great distances by the wind. Dieldrin can evaporate slowly from surface water or soil. In the air, dieldrin changes to photodieldrin within a few days. Plants can take up dieldrin from the soil and store it in their leaves and roots. Fish or animals that eat dieldrin-contaminated materials store a large amount of the dieldrin in their fat. Animals or fish that eat other animals have levels of dieldrin in their fat many times higher than animals or fish that eat plants....

Formula: C12H8Cl6O - It is highly organic. 
Dev Neurosci. 1998;20(1):83-92.

Prenatal exposure (click here) to the pesticide dieldrin or the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline differentially alters expression of GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNAs in fetal rat brainstem.

Liu J, Brannen KC, Grayson DR, Morrow AL, Devaud LL, Lauder JM.


We have previously shown that GABA acts as a trophic signal for monoamine neurons in embryonic day 14 (E14) rat brainstem cultures [Liu et al., J Neurosci 1997a; 17:2420-2428]. The organochlorine pesticide dieldrin and the classical GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline interfere with the trophic actions of GABA and alter expression of several GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNA transcripts in these cultures [Liu et al., J Neurosci Res 1997b;49:645-653]. In the present study, we investigated whether prenatal exposure to dieldrin or bicuculline from E12-17 would alter mRNA expression of alpha1, beta3, gamma1, gamma2S and gamma2L GABA(A) receptor subunits in fetal (E17) rat brainstem using competitive RT-PCR to absolutely quantify these transcripts. The effects of dieldrin and bicuculline on expression of GABA(A) receptor subunit transcripts were similar across subunits. Dieldrin and bicuculline decreased expression of alpha1, beta3 and gamma1 transcripts compared to vehicle-injected controls, but did not significantly alter expression of gamma2S and gamma2L transcripts. Taken together, these studies indicate that in utero exposure to organochlorine pesticides acting as GABA(A) receptor antagonists may alter the expression and subunit composition of developing GABA(A) receptors. If these changes persist, they could have long-lasting effects on developing GABAergic neural circuitry, GABA(A) receptor function and GABA-mediated behaviors.

When it comes to agricultural lands, floods do considerable damage. But, Wisconsin has had some flooding and people are worried about their future.

July 21, 2017

On everyone’s lips this week (click here) is some variant of the word “flood.” There is a palpable sense of loss as you drive through the areas impacted by last week’s unprecedented rain event. Just as homeowners in low-lying areas and along waterways felt the brunt of the floods, farmers with land, buildings and livestock in these areas suffered as well. Flooded farm fields, some still with standing water, are some of the most visible signs of the impacts of last week’s events.

As the waters recede, farmers are left to evaluate the extent of the damage. Crops completely submerged by water for prolonged periods are likely a complete loss. Even if flooding doesn’t kill a growing plant, excessive moisture can have a longer-term impact on crop quality and yield. Flooding depletes oxygen in the soil, which can cause root death. Rot and fungal diseases flourish in wet conditions and can negatively impact crop conditions. Flooding can also result in nutrient deficiencies in the soil, hampering plant growth. Just getting in the field to assess and address any of these issues is also made difficult by saturated soils. And when it finally comes to harvesting crops, mud and silt that has covered plant structures can make harvesting dustier than usual and harder on equipment....

July 20, 2017
By Ben Jordan
A Kenosha County family (click here for video - thank you) is worried they’ll lose the house they’ve lived in for decades after floods damaged much of their property.
It’s been one week since historic floods devastated communities in southeastern Wisconsin, and on Wednesday emergency managers went door-to-door to assess damage in Kenosha County....

Flood Insurance: Rolling some expensive dice (click here)

If your property appears in a FEMA (click here) - designated flood zone, and you do not already have flood insurance, you should contact your insurance provider or call the National Flood Insurance Program's toll free number at 1-888-379-9531, or visit the following website for more information on flood insurance see FEMA’s Flood Insurance Program. Flood insurance is available for residents of the unincorporated area of Kenosha County and the incorporated areas that participate in the National Flood Insurance Program.

The National Flood Insurance Program's FloodSmart Campaign has been increasing public awareness about flood risks and the importance of flood insurance protection At Floodsmart, you can enter your property address and see just how much damage flooding can cause, assess their individual flood risk and learn more about the claims process.

To determine if your property is within the 100-year locally zoned floodplain you can use the Kenosha County Interactive mapping application. The 100-year floodplain boundary is the boundary of a flood that has a one-percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year. The zoning district applicable to the 100-year floodplain zoning is the FPO Floodplain Overlay District. The Kenosha County Department of Planning and Development does prepare formal floodplain determination letters for a fee. This letter includes both federal and local data in the determination. If you are interested in obtaining a formal floodplain determination letter, please contact a Land Use Specialist at (262) 857-1895.

NOTE: Kenosha County floodplain zoning maps were developed to reflect the best available data and which show the areas to be regulated. However it is recommended that the floodplain boundary on your property be field verified by a professional land surveyor.
Agricultural soils seem rather limited in it's idea. Of course, soils are for agriculture.

Agricultural soil science is a branch of soil science that deals with the study of edaphic (of, by or influenced by the soil) conditions as they relate to the production of food and fiber.

The edaphic soil sounds like it has power, right? Of, BY or influenced by the soil. Wow. Influenced by the soil. Earth. Its components react to each other. What if Earth's cooperative environment became hostile?

...Although agriculture (click here) is essential for human food and the stability of complex societies, almost all of our evolution has taken place in small, mobile, kin-based social groups, such as bands and tribes (Diamond 1999, Johanson & Edgar 2006). Before we became sedentary people dependent on agriculture, we were largely dependent on wild plant and animal foods, without managing soil and water resources for food production. Our social evolution has accelerated since the Agricultural Revolution and taken place synergistically with human biological evolution, as we have become dependent on domesticated plants and animals grown purposefully in highly managed, soil-water systems... 

In a far less perfect world where grocery stores do not thrive, Earth takes care of it's inhabitants if the biotic balance of Earth's abundance is still possible. Can Earth still provide for it's inhabitants?
It's Sunday Night

It can be called Folk Metal, Doom Metal or thrash metal, but, while ridiculed for it's dark side and bizarre works and music; the metal culture is simply trying to relate.

The band below, "Hammers of Misfortune" is a California band that has never been in the fields of any agricultural enterprise, but, they are children of the land and seek to understand the injustice.

"Agriculture" by Hammers of Misfortune (click here for Facebook site) 

Hands upon harrows
Heels in the weeds
Starving and harvesting
Down centuries
Pheasants in fields to be hunted and plucked
Such is their ration of sixpenny luck

Multinous Мужикѕ
Who mutter in tongues
They frighten the horses
Of fortunate sons
Absent the rustics, what have they become?
Only on Sunday their tears weakly run

More or less murder?
One simple order
It's just history's whisper
A secret to leave in the field
Hands upon harrows and heels in the weeds
Treason and guillotines, gallows and thieves

Angular hayseeds once furrowed this land
Picturesque reapers with skeletal hands
Proles are more portly now, mouths open wide
Tipping the scales we so kindly provide
Skeletal hands were our strata's delight
But oh so offensive on opening night