Sunday, March 30, 2014

The USA has always worried about water.

The Water Quality Portal (WQP) (click here) is a cooperative service sponsored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC).

Water is vital to life. Water bodies are important to moving commerce and has been since the very beginnings of the USA.

At one time water quality wasn't a concern of the country. That was until Rachel Carson made us take notice. 

The population in the USA has grown significantly in the 20th and now the 21st centuries. Water availability and it's quality would have been a problem with a growing population without the Climate Crisis. But, add the Climate Crisis and there is ever growing concerns about the near future as well as the future of generations. 

Understand, Restore, and Protect our Waters: (click here) The National Water Quality Monitoring Council (Council) provides a forum to improve the Nation's water quality through partnerships that foster increased understanding and stewardship of our water resources.

This is not a minor issue. It is one that even the USA military is concerned about. I would think the American people would look long and hard at the history of water abuses by industry and realize it cannot be tolerated anymore. These decisions won't be getting easier, so I strongly suggest we get on with them in anticipation of clear stresses existing even now.

By Carol Christian 
March 28, 2014 
Updated: March 28, 2014 1:59pm

It's scary to think the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, (click here) with its relentless drought and wind that ravaged millions of acres in West Texas, could return.

But there are some worrisome  signs, according to the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service.

Reports this week from county agents in the Panhandle, South Plains and Rolling Plains indicate farmers and ranchers are working with "very difficult" conditions, according to a news release.

Lubbock County, on the southern edge of the Panhandle, has seen only a trace of moisture in March with sustained high winds and gusts of 58 mph on March 18, according to the county's AgriLife Extension agent Mark Brown.

In Knox County, east of Lubbock County and south of the Panhandle, agent Jerry Coplen said cotton producers were trying to prepare their planting beds in between dust storms.

Rick Auckerman, AgriLife agent for Deaf Smith County in the western Panhandle, reported that producers were running out of tools to stop soil from blowing away in punishing winds of 30 to 50 mph, the news release said.

Participate in your government. Protect your best interests.

How to Comment on the Proposed Carbon Pollution Standards for New Power Plants (click here)

EPA will accept written comments until May 9, 2014.
  • Comments on the proposed Carbon Pollution Standards for New Power Plants must reference Docket ID:
Comments may be submitted by one of the following methods:...

In regard to the new EPA water quality rule:

...forthcoming FR publication (click here), which will appear on the Government Printing Office’s FDsys website ( and on ( in Docket No. EPA-HQ-OW-2011-0880 (click here)...

There is plenty of opportunity supplied by the EPA in regard to any rules developed. That has been true since it's inception. I suggest anyone with interest take this opportunity seriously.

This is from a Power Point of a scientist, better said hydrologist, in South Africa.

Hydrological Variability (click here)

Climate and runoff are naturally variable.
•The degree of variability is different all over the world.
•There is often not enough information to properly define the 
degree of variability.
•Variability is likely to change in the future.
•Variability is difficult to predict, even in the short-term future.
•There are therefore many sources of uncertainty associated with 
defining and managing for hydrological variability.
These are two of the pages that define "Hydrological Variability." One of the favorite words used by the Republicans is CERTAINTY. 
Do I have to actually portray what the UNcertainty is the USA will be facing if the EPA does not go forward with this new rule? 
Sources of Uncertainty
 Natural hydrological variability
–Difficult to predict climate patterns and therefore patterns 
of water availability.
–Exacerbated by uncertainties associated with future climate 
variations – historical patterns may no longer be relevant for 
future analyses.
•Effects of basin developments
–Changes in land use.
–Changes in patterns of water abstraction

These are major cities in the USA. There are serious problems with water supply and it's availability. The USA has to insure water quality in order to harness the availability to future challenges. 
I would think there would be profound appreciation for the diligent work of both the EPA and the Army Corp in this matter.

Excuse me?

From the most noble "Marcellus Drilling News." The respect it shows this government is amazing. I can only imagine the joy they bring to Congressional offices carrying fits full of money.

These companies are LEASING our land. They don't own it and they don't have the right to ignore safety and protections of our citizens even if they did own it. But, the TONE of this publication tells the tale of the level of reverence they show toward the people that lease the land to them.

...The plan, (click here) drafted by EPA staffers, now goes to an advisory committee, the EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB), for a review. The SAB is made up of scientific experts, mostly academics, who will review the proposed methodology of the study and offer feedback on how to revise the study. Once that’s done, in early March, the official study will be launched....

What I find interesting is that the House Appropriations Subcommittee complained about is that the EPA and Army Corp was proceeding without the Science Advisory Board completed or was assigned it's work. Well. That is a significant change in the appreciation of science. Somehow that is suppose to act now as a snafu now of the new rule by the EPA and Army Corp. 

I don't think so.

Congress established the EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) (click here) in 1978 and gave it a broad mandate to advise the Agency on technical matters. The SAB's principal mission includes:
  • reviewing the quality and relevance of the scientific and technical information being used or proposed as the basis for Agency regulations 
  • reviewing research programs and the technical basis of applied programs
  • reviewing generic approaches to regulatory science, including guidelines governing the use of scientific and technical information in regulatory decisions, and critiquing such analytic methods as mathematical modelling
  • advising the Agency on broad scientific matters in science, technology, social and economic issues, and
  • advising the Agency on emergency and other short-notice programs
Most (though not all) preliminary work of the SAB is done by subcommittees or panels focused on various environmental science topics. These groups are chaired by SAB members. Recommendations of subcommittees and panels are transmitted to the SAB for discussion and deliberation. Recommendations are forwarded to EPA only if the SAB determines that it is appropriate. This website provides information on:... 

The difference between the EPA today under President Obama and those in the past is that it is lead by a scientist. The Secretary of the EPA has the right and obligation to act in her capacity. She is qualified to work in collaboration with the Army Corp and make decisions. The Science Advisory Board does not preempt her authority or that of the US Army Corp. Please tell me the Appropriations knows what they are doing and understand authority within the federal government.

...(Lisa) Jackson (click here) was a self-described "geek", who didn't settle for mediocrity in the classroom. After graduating summa cum laude from Tulane's School of Chemical Engineering in 1983, Jackson moved north to Princeton University for her master's. She followed up her degree with a two-year stint at Clean Sites, Inc., a non-profit that manages environmental cleanup projects, many of them associated with the Superfund program. She then went to work for the EPA's Superfund program, making a name for herself as one of its staff engineers.

In 2002, Jackson joined New Jersey's Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) as an assistant commissioner. She was appointed to the top post in 2006.... 

The Congress needs to get over itself. We have a very qualified President with a highly qualified cabinet. The business community needs to get smart and find the respect they need to show for these magnificent Americans.

McCarthy (click here) received a Bachelor of Arts in Social Anthropology from the University of Massachusetts at Boston and a joint Master of Science in Environmental Health Engineering and Planning and Policy from Tufts University.

Is this another United Nation's document? No. It is from the USGS in 2007. Seven years ago.

A reliable and adequate supply of clean fresh water is essential to the survival of each human being on Earth and the maintenance of terrestrial biotic systems worldwide. Yet, rising human populations everywhere are increasing the stress on currentlyavailable water supplies evenwithout the anticipated impacts of climatic change. In many areas, the impacts of changing climate are going to make securing a reliable and adequate clean fresh water supply for all even more daunting. These concerns follow naturally from the general definition of drought used by the international meteorological community: 
the ”prolonged absence or marked deficiency of precipitation”, a ”deficiency of precipitation that results in water shortage for some activity or for some group” or a ”period of abnormally dry weather sufficiently prolonged for the lack of precipitation to cause a serious hydrological imbalance” (Heim, 2002). 
What happens to land when it first experiences drought and then rains? 
What happens to the water when erosion and runoff occurs?
What kind of water quality occurs when pollution results? 
Does it matter?
Does it matter if creeks, rivers and major bodies of water becomes polluted due to the Climate Crisis?
How is the USA going to stop the pollution caused by flooding and erosion where none occurred before?

Is it going to stop it with antiquated rules and crony priorities?
In Washington State a tragedy occurred. The river changed course. This is what it looks like now when the two tributaries meet. And the EPA is suppose to have it's hands tied because of crony concerns on the East Coast? I don't think so.
 The muddied waters (click here) of the North Fork of the Stillaguamish River mix with the cleaner flow of the river's South Fork on March 27.

There is at least one new job in West Virginia.

A worker dismantles Freedom Industries chemical storage tanks. (Tyler Evert/AP)

By Letter to the Editor
March 28, 2014

Over spring break, (click here) Swarthmore Mountain Justice members attended the Mountain Justice Spring Break in Doddridge County, West Virginia. During panels and discussions throughout the week, we heard directly from people in West Virginia who have seen their backyards fracked, their local mountaintops blown off, and their water poisoned.

Tragically, on January 9th, a chemical called 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM), which is used to wash coal before combustion, spilled into the Elk River, and in days contaminated the water of over 300,000 people. Over a month later, residents still lack access to clean water, forcing many to continue purchasing bottled water, which presents a challenge for low-income individuals as well as the disabled and elderly. While in West Virginia over spring break we helped distribute bottled water in Charleston to residents who are still suffering the effects of this spill....

This is still going on? 

Why is it the Republicans have so little appreciation of quality of life for their constituents?

The Clean Water Act (CWA) has been toyed with over the past Republican administrations and the definitions within the law have to be clarified. The new proposal is below.

The EPA Administrator, (click here) Gina McCarthy, and the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Civil Works), Jo Ellen Darcy, signed the following proposed rule on 03/25/2014 and 03/24/2014, respectively, and the EPA is submitting it for publication in the Federal Register (FR).

ACTION:  Proposed rule


The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) are publishing for public comment a proposed rule defining the scope of waters protected under the Clean Water Act (CWA), in light of the U.S. Supreme Court cases in U.S. v. Riverside Bayview, Rapanos v. United States, and Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (SWANCC), and Rapanos v. United States (Rapanos). 

Today’s proposal would enhance protection for the nation’s public health
and aquatic resources, and increase CWA program predictability and consistency by increasing clarity as to the scope of “waters of the United States” protected under the Act....

Hal is stating the EPA is overreaching and expanding it's jurisdiction over waters in the USA. The EPA and the Army Corp of Engineers already have authority to enforce laws throughout the sovereign USA, so the comments are harassing and not appropriate.

I simply want to point to the fact Secretary McCarthy is moving forward with US Constitutionally sound initiative as defined by previous US Supreme Court decisions about navigable waters of the USA. 

She is applying modern day technology (which will increase efficiency of the agency) to clarify the EPA's rules. This rule has been written in conjunction with the US Army Corp. It could not be better defined with a scope that protects waters for Americans. Of course, we all know our waterways and bodies of water can and have been used for dumping by private industry and that continued practice alone appears to be the concern of the Republicans on the Subcommittee.

On the opposite end of the spectrum is US Representative James P. Moran, a Democrat from Northern Virginia, stating the new rule isn't clarifying enough. He states he has heard from Americans, organizations and businesses requesting EPA increase it's new rule to tighter control of mining practices. He points to the fact the fishing industry in it's multiple forms, sports fishing, commercial fishing and aquaculture is worth billions of dollars US and millions of dollars in taxes to federal and state governments. 

By Ben Pershing 
Published: January 15

U.S. Rep. James P. Moran (click here) announced Wednesday that he will retire after more than two outspoken and controversial decades in Congress, throwing open a heavily Democratic seat in Northern Virginia....

The sports fishing industry (click here) alone provides at least 800,000 jobs in the USA. Americans spend $48 billion annually on equipment, licenses, trips and other fishing-related items or events. These figures are about the entire country, not simply Virginia. They don't even begin to address the commercial fishing and shellfish industries in the USA.

I'd like to clarify some facts misspoken during the rhetoric of Hal.

The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) (click here) calculator provides a simple calculator for both utility-scale and distributed generation (DG) renewable energy technologies that compares the combination of capital costs, operations and maintenance (O&M), performance, and fuel costs.

The Electric Power Monthly is a more than interesting document of which I sincerely doubt Hal has looked at.

This is the profile of Kentucky's 5th District as per "Roll Call" which has been in print from 1955.

The rural 5th, (click here) which takes in eastern Kentucky's hardscrabble coal country, has struggled with poverty, undereducation and a lack of economic diversity. The district has the nation's highest percentage of white residents (96 percent) and its second-lowest median household income.

Did I mention Hal is the US Representative of Kentucky's 5th District. This is still another district in the USA that does not vote according to it's best interests, but, then under education would serve that purpose would it not? Lack of economic diversity adds to the desperation of citizens to keep what does exist. Now, to me, cronyism is a huge problem that has manifested in stagnant economic growth and victimization of the citizens and Kentucky's 5th is one of the best examples of that.

Stated by Hal:

"Cost of USA electricity is cheap and wants to keep it that way so jobs stay in the USA Cheap electricity is what makes the USA a good place for manufacturing."

Electric Power Monthly (click here)

Data for January 2014 
Release Date: March 21, 2014
Next Release: April 21, 2014 

"US Cents per kWh"

In the USA - 8 to 17 and then 37 in Hawaii

This is the average price of electricity in Kentucky. It tracks at the lower end of the spectrum in the USA.

But, Hal wasn't talking about the USA so much as a global attraction.

We know China and India are among the nations that have outsourced jobs from the USA. The primary driver cited by most companies is the labor costs.

Electricity in Beijing (click here) costs 0.48 yuan per kwh (.08 US), while the average price Guangdong Province is the highest at up to 0.638 yuan per kwh (.10 US). Shenzhen charges 0.68 yuan per kwh (0.11 US). 

In India it is estimated in February 2013 the cost is 8 to 12 cents US.

It is very safe to say, Hal is lying. There is no way these costs in electricity in the USA is a determining factor in attracting companies to the USA. Certainly, the example of the stagnant economy of Kentucky's Fifth District is testament to that reality. 

While the Subcommittee was anxious about "...get away day..." the people in need of the full force of The Clean Water Act cannot get away from their reality.

Wet coal ash is seen on someone’s hand next to the Dan River, which flows through North Carolina and Virginia. Duke Energy spilled 30,000 tons of it upstream.

Gerry Broome/AP

By Noelle Swan 
Staff writer 
March 30, 2014

..."This place was where I first knew God was real," (click here) Mr. Adkins drawls, gazing down at a narrow segment of the river known as Draper Landing. That's where he learned to fish and swim as a boy, where he first felt a spiritual connection to nature, he says. Gesturing toward his 2-year-old son, Benson, he adds, "I was planning on teaching him how to fish and swim right here, too.

"Now, I wouldn't let my dog come in here," Adkins adds.

Less than two months earlier, a storm pipe underneath an unlined coal ash basin two miles upstream from Draper Landing ruptured and spewed more than 30,000 tons of coal ash into the Dan. The plume of gray sludge spread 70 miles downstream, depositing toxins along the way....

Duke Energy engineers and contractors survey the site of a coal ash spill at the Dan River Power Plant in Eden, N.C., in February.(Photo: AP)

Duane W. Gang 
March 29, 2014

Coal ash (click here) is the byproduct from burning coal to produce electricity. The material contains arsenic, selenium, mercury and other pollutants — all harmful to people and wildlife when found in high concentrations.

The challenge for power providers is how to store it. For decades, utilities often stored the material in large ponds where it was mixed with water. But pollutants can leach into groundwater and rivers. The ponds themselves also can fail. In 2008, a dike broke at the Tennessee Valley Authority’s Kingston Fossil Plant, spilling 5.4 million cubic yards of coal ash.

The unbalanced membership of the House Interior Subcommittee is the same for the Environment.

I am sure everyone realizes there are sometimes conflict of interest between the Interior Department and the EPA. They are separate cabinet positions. So, by all measurable standards the same members of the Interior Subcommittee overseeing the appropriations of the EPA is corrupt from the beginning.

Then realize the announcement of this meeting appeared under Interior. Now while that might seem petty, if I were looking for the budget meeting for the EPA and knowing it had it's own cabinet secretary, would I be looking under "Interior?" No. That is called obstructionism.

Interior (click here)

Gina McCarthy, Administrator, Environment Protection Agency

FY 15 Budget - Environment Protection Agency 


Republicans (click here)
  • Ken Calvert, California, Chairman
  • Mike Simpson, Idaho, VIce-Chairman
  • Tom Cole, Oklahoma
  • Jaime Herrera Beutler, Washington
  • David Joyce, Ohio
  • David Valadao, California
  • Chris Stewart, Utah

  • Jim Moran, Virginia, Ranking Member
  • Betty McCollum, Minnesota
  • Chellie Pingree, Maine
  • José Serrano, New York

The meeting held March 27, 2014.

The Clean Water Act and the Endangered Species Act is on the chopping block as far as right wing extremists are concerned. Laws are unenforceable unless there is funding to provide federal employees to carry them out.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (click here) Administrator Gina McCarthy testified on her agency’s fiscal year 2015 budget request. She defended the EPA’s proposed rule under the Clean Water Act that would give the agency authority over streams and intermittent waters that feed into navigable waterways. She called the rule a “clarification,” refuting assertions by Full Committee Chair Hal Rogers (R-KY), who called it an EPA “power grab.” Other topics during questioning included how the agency would deal with budget and staff cuts, proposed new rules on coal ash and fracking, and converting waste to other materials.

President Obama reduced the request for the EPA by $310 million from last year's request.

The Chairman of the House Appropriations, Hal Rogers who is on his 16th term in the US House, participated in the  House Appropriations Subcommittee on the Environment. The Subcommittee was formed under the House Appropriations Interior, Environment and Related Agencies.

US Rep. Rogers statements were nothing but rude, rhetorical and left out any concern for the people of the USA, but, more importantly the people of his district.

I am quite sure US Rep. Rogers doesn't care he made CREW's (Citizen's for Responsibility and Ethics) Most Corrupt list where he is affectionately called, "The Prince of Pork." This only goes to prove Mr. Rogers places no importance on constituent issues so much as crony concerns.

The long list of earmarks (click here) he’s steered to well-connected campaign contributors shows Rep. Hal Rogers has yet again earned the title “Prince of Pork.”

The Kentucky Republican earmarked millions of dollars to a Kentucky manufacturer, Phoenix Products, which produces leak proof drip pans for the Army.  The Phoenix drip pans cost an average of $17,000 each, even though a competitor charges about $2,500 for a similar part.

Rep. Rogers, nicknamed the “Prince of Pork” for his habitual earmarking, has taken more than $35,000 in campaign contributions from the owners of Phoenix Products and employees of its lobbying firm....

It's Sunday Night

"Cool, Clear Water" by Sons of the Pioneers (official website)
I want to feel my earth turn over,baby
In this hardened winter ground
Feel my earth turn over, darlin'
Till' I'm rootless and unbound
I want to feel my body tremble
When there's no one else around
Just this cool, clear water runnin'
In this love that I've found

Hey baby
See how it can be
Every time you reveal yourself tome
I'll come runnin'

I want to feel myself go under, baby
Where the deepest river bleeds
I want to feel it pull me under,darlin'
Until it drops me to my knees
I want to know that I can find you
When there's no more eyes to see
In this cool, clear water runnin'
You'll come runnin' to me

Hey baby
All my life I have known there's something more
A love to blind me like the sun
Deep in dreams, I will wash upon your shore
Now I know that you're the one

When I feelmy baby callin'
It's like a whisper in

And when the softestrain is fallin', darlin'
I will crumble in your hand
And when all that's left is wonder
And no need to understand
Well this cool, clear waterrunnin'
Will be all that I am...

Who was in the park?

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, Wyo. (AP) — A 4.8 earthquake shook (click here) the northern part of Yellowstone National Park early Sunday.

The University of Utah Seismograph Stations reports the earthquake occurred at 6:34 a.m. about 4 miles north-northeast of the Norris Geyser Basin. The university reports it was felt in the Montana border towns of West Yellowstone and Gardiner, both about 20 miles from the epicenter.

There were no immediate reports of damage. There are few visitors in the park this time of year.

Yellowstone sees frequent small earthquakes. Since Thursday, there have been at least 25 recorded in the nation's first national park.

Date: August 17, 1959
Magnitude: 7.3 - 7.5 Mw
Damage from the earthquake then.

Epicenter  44.863 North and 111.335 West 

Today: 44.778°North and  110.683°West

Solitary confinement in jails and prisons is a huge issue. I think addressing children is prudent and easily assailed.

The prevalence of first crime, then incarceration rate and then the quality of prison life and whether or not solitary is used as torture followed by sentencing protocols accompanied by community resources is the dynamic that is involved. Overlying all this is how well a society provides quality of life in communities that will DETER crime.

The top seven in both crime rates and incarceration rates are Southern States, The quality of life within these states speaks loudly to this reality. I might point to the fact Florida is in the top seven in both instances.

There is approximately 140 State prisons in Florida. That does not count the local and county jails or the federal prisons. That is a whole lot of prisons. As of 2013 the population of Florida is estimated at 19.5 million people. It's minority populations are higher than the rest of the country which dictates state government policy in bilingual outreach and it's effectiveness in the health and well being of it's minorities.

A little bit odd is that at the age of 25 years older there are less BS degrees in the state than the average in the entire country. Florida has some incredible state universities with a large number of college and community colleges. There is no reason why they should be behind the USA in number of BS graduates in the state. Additionally, there is no ready information as to the breakdown of minority BS graduates. 

There is this: 

30 Best U.S. Non-HBCU (HBCU means Historically Black Colleges and Universities) Schools for Minorities (click here) 

by Matthew Lynch

Across the country, institutions of higher learning are starting to look more like the general population. In the 2010-2011 school year, three times as many minority students received bachelor’s degrees compared to the 1990-1991 school year.  Back then, minorities only represented 13 percent of bachelor degree earners; today, that number has jumped to nearly one-fourth of total degree recipients.

I’ve written about the Top 20 Historically Black Colleges and Universities and included schools that are growing in diversity. I’d like to expand that idea to include non-HBCUs that have excellent programs in place for minority students. I used several factors to create this list: percentage of minority students enrolled, freshman retention rates, graduation rate gaps and general graduation rates (particularly over six years)....

27. Florida State University
Tallahassee: The six year graduation rate is 72.7 and 74.1 for Black and White students, respectively. As a state school, tuition is affordable for residents ($212 per credit hour for full time) and Florida students can also take advantage of tuition breaks through the Bright Futures program that tracks academic progress and community involvement during high school.

Compare that performance to that of Number 1 to decide how much of an effort is actually put forward. University of San Francisco is probably among the most diverse universities in the country.

1.   University of San Francisco: With a 40 percent minority population, the graduation rates for all demographics are impressive. The school graduates 74 percent of Hispanic students, 51 percent of Black students, 71 percent of Asian and Pacific Islander students and 61 percent of White students. Though the private school has pricey tuition ($33,500 for both in and out-of-state students), 59 percent of students receive grants from the university. The total grant aid received by the student body from all sources is nearly $55 million.

To take this one step further. Forbes has the University of San Francisco ranked 12th of 20 in the most diverse. Those finishing ahead of it are mostly California Universities. But, the aspect of SUCCESS of minority members of our society sometimes relies on 'support systems' available to their success.

Student to Faculty Ratio 23:1

Total Cost - $31,366 (For out-of-state students living on campus)
In State Tuition and Fees - $3,762
Out of State Tuition and Fees - $13,932 

1.1% of the student enrollment is involved in Varsity Athletics.

SAT Composite Range 880-1120 (SAT composite includes only Critical Reading and Math.)

This is a fairly good rage. If universities are going to have a higher minority graduation rate, it first has to have a range of admission data where they live. 

What do I mean by that?

As a student is educated from their earliest years they are exposed to RESOURCES and if the classroom is not speaking their language they become more and more disadvantaged. I hesitate to invoke 'so called efficiency' in grouping minority education of any young person into single language classrooms. That only enforces the language BARRIER and does not dispel it for any student including those speaking English. How is an English speaking student going to work with others that are bilingual or more in the work environment? Acceptance of diversity has to begin at the earliest of ages.

How does that relate to Solitary Confinement? What ethnicities are the most incarcerated in the USA? 

Realize the median income in Florida is $47,309 in the years 2008-2012. That is below the average USA median income of $53,046. That is 10.8 percent lower due somewhat to larger retirement community. However, that retirement community as it ages needs care. That means there is a far larger opportunity for health care workers in Florida which should bring median incomes up and not force it down unless those workers are receiving minimum wage.

Lower median incomes brings suspicion of minority populations and sure enough there is 3.5 percent more African Americans in Florida than that national average and 6.3 percent more Hispanics. 

So, what do we have here? Florida has a far larger population of minorities than the rest of the country because Florida is ranked 4th in population. It also has an exorbitant number of state prisons and a diminished effort with the eduction that will raise their minorities to the level of Bachelor's degree. 

I didn't pick Florida, it picked me. I just followed the trail. Here it is.

By Julie Ebenstein
Staff Attorney
Voting Rights Project
ACLU at 3:59pm 

...Currently, the sad state of affairs in Florida (click here) serves as a prime example of the U.S.’s poor human rights record on solitary confinement.

Florida’s state prison population is the third largest in the United States, with a higher incarceration rate than any country in Central or South America. Florida incarcerates 100,272 people in its 60 state prisons and supervises almost 115,000 offenders on community supervision. Florida sends  more young people under age 18 to adult state prisons than any other state in the nation. 

Prisoners held in solitary confinement in Florida state prisons can be there for months on end. They are detained in nearly complete isolation, entitled to leave their cell three times per week to take a shower, and, only after thirty days, an additional three hours per week to exercise. Children in state prison may be subjected to solitary confinement and endure long periods without exercise, educational instruction, contact with their families or any rehabilitative programs and services. 

Although children and mentally ill prisoners are particularly susceptible to the devastating physical and psychological effects of total isolation, they are dramatically overrepresented in solitary confinement. Neither Florida law nor its correctional regulations applies solitary confinement any differently to children or those who are seriously mentally ill, as compared to other prisoners, demonstrating a willful blindness to the particular vulnerability of these populations. In recognition of these practices, international bodies are increasingly investigating the treatment of incarcerated juveniles in the U.S. 
The systemic isolation of vulnerable prisoners bucks the emerging consensus that extended solitary confinement violates the international prohibition on cruel and inhumane treatment. By reporting on solitary confinement in the Americas, the IACHR will have an opportunity to shine a light on how the U.S. has deviated from international human rights norms....

Now, consider the level of victimization of the electorate from at the very least the year 2000 and explain to me why those afflicted with these social conditions can't achieve enough representations in that state to change their circumstances.

If a population of people cannot solve their problems, what is going to happen? 

Crime and then the downward spiral begins.

Recidivism rates at this point in crime history in the USA isn't really valid because sentencing has changed in non-violent crime. Those statistics won't settle out for some time.

The drug sentencing standards didn't work at all. The acceptance of one time illegal substances will result in different paradigms. 

In order to measure recidivism a prisoner first has to serve his or her time before they are released off probation and considered fully engaged as an independent citizen. One of the studies that I rarely see is the relationship between voting rights and recidivism. The only time the USA Constitution states a citizen loses their voting rights is when they are prisoners. In many states those that are released for serving the time for their crimes aren't given their voting rights back at all. 

If I were to change the voting rights of released prisoners, I'd start with the newly released that were victimized by excessive sentences. I'd want to know what their time in prison has done to their lives and ability to cope in the real world. Also, do they understand what making election decision means to their best interests and a life of building wealth in a meaningful way.

Currently, the recidivism is about 33% in the USA which are based in older statistics. Smaller states higher and larger states lower. Louisiana has the highest recidivism rate of 43 percent. 

The rate of recidivism has historically increased as time goes on, first year released the lowest, second higher and third highest. The first year is recognition of their recent experience, but, by the third year they have realized there is little to no option for them and return to the prison system. 

There is also this doggedly high recidivism rate of 65% that existed within 'the sentencing phase.' It seemed to me the most hopeless period is after the verdict and before entering prison. Why not commit crime then?

There appears to be a low resistence to that 'tipping point' of hopelessness within some populations in the USA. Hopelessness is due to long term stress that relates to opportunity and upward movement to solve problems.

The more stress within a paradigm of hopelessness, the quicker that reality of life will take hold and resolve to decision making that promotes crime.