Sunday, May 01, 2016

The annexes for Kyoto Protocol are fairly important parts of the document. The entire issue of greenhouse gases is a lot bigger than most people realize. I suppose if an American is trying to tie the knot with the man of her dreams there are few that stop to wonder what the PPMs of CO2 are this year. 

Perfluorocarbon (PFC) is listed separately from CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) because they are chemically different. CFCs degrade the high altitude ozone layer and PFCs do not. PFCs are used in refrigeration because the CFCs were outlawed from use at all. 

The problem with PFCs is the fact they are a very stable compound that also traps heat within Earth's troposphere. 

The idea of what country is the most polluting can be somewhat manipulated to the public's understanding, so I want to clear this up.

Let's say the USA and China are both spewing the same amount of CO2 everyday. There is an article from December 2, 2012 (click here) stating the USA emits 2.4 million pounds per second of CO2.

So, as an example let's just say both China and the USA both emit 2.4 million pounds of CO2 per second. Who is emitting more? Identical right? But, if it is reported differently, what is the PER CAPITA emissions between the two countries. The USA has more than 300 million people, but, in keeping the math simple it will be 300 million people. That would make the USA per capita emission per second of CO2 0.008 pound. 

China had a population in 2010 of 1.381 billion people. For the sake of simplicity I'll just say China has a billion people. China's per capita emission per second of CO2 is 0.0024 pound. 

USA - 0.0080 pounds per second per capita
China - 0.0024 pounds per second per capita

If decimals drive you crazy let's just multiple both numbers by 1000.

USA - 0.0080 X 1000 = 8.0
China - 0.0024 X 1000 = 2.4 

It looks as though the USA emits more than China when in fact they are the same according to this simplistic illustration. They are different per capita because China has far more people than the USA. What is the best type of reporting? Per capita or total emissions? I think total emissions is a far better method of reporting and while keeping countries on the same standard. Standards in greenhouse gas reporting are very important. 

Why is total better than per capita? Does per capita show responsibility per person for their emissions? Yes and no, primarily no. It is a good idea to have each person globally measure their carbon foot print and in that way referring to per capita can inspire folks. But, in all sincere reality, to divide the total emissions of a country into per capita is assigning far higher carbon emissions than one person emits in their daily lives. The carbon emissions of a country encompass industry as well as person, etc. 

Besides the focus has to be total emissions so each country can discover where the emissions are coming from and make necessary changes.

In understanding emissions is to understand the real culprit to all these problems with greenhouse gases, why is it the petroleum industry isn't the least bit interested in containing emissions? I am not saying the petroleum industry should have been fashioning a method of CO2 collection for every car on the road. But, what I am saying is that the petroleum industry has been completely irreverent to the science. They don't contain even methane emissions today from fracking wells. There is no excuse for that. The entire petroleum industry in the USA have no desire or intentions to prevent leaking methane from wells. That illustrates the profound disregard for not just the science of the climate crisis, but, the lives of the people the climate crisis changes on a regular basis. These are not tornadoes that occur once in a blue moon; they are happening all the time.

I want to return for a moment to the entry that stated 2005 saw no tornadoes in May. 2005 was the year of the highest number of hurricanes in the Atlantic on record. On this blog I have stated when there are few hurricanes there are more tornadoes and when there are more hurricanes there are less tornadoes. It is all a matter of how Earth's physics handles heat from year to year. At least that is the way it was during the years 2005 and earlier. 

I made mention of H20 (water) as a greenhouse gas that will be covered here. It will be, but, it is far more complex in it's role as a greenhouse gas, so I will save it for after Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).

Since this is the last entry for tonight I'd like to make a note that Maurice White (click here for his official website), the lead singer for "Earth, Wind and Fire," passed away this year. Maurice White was a highly acclaimed musician with multiple awards to his name. He'll be missed.

Thank you for visiting. 

The emissions of CO2 slowed for three years straight, but, the ppm continues to rise because of the longevity of the gas in Earth's atmosphere.

CO2 measure from Mauna Loa Observatory this past March.

From the "Albany Daily Star:

The growth of global CO2 (click here) Emission has been slowed in recent years of rising rapidly, a new study points out just days before Paris climate summits.

After a decade of rapid growth in global CO2 emissions, which increased at an average annual rate of 4 percent, much smaller increases were registered in 2012 (0.8 percent), 2013 (1.5 percent) and 2014 (0.5 percent)

In 2014, when the emissions growth was almost at a standstill, the world’s economy continued to grow by 3 percent.

The trend over the last three years thus sends an encouraging signal on the decoupling of CO2 emissions from global economic growth. However, it is still too early to confirm a positive global trend. For instance India, with its emerging economy and large population, increased its emissions by 7.8 percent and became the fourth largest emitter globally.

A new report published by PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC) showed that not only did global CO2 emissions growth slow to only 0.5% in 2014 compared to the year previous, but that the world’s economy grew 3% during the same period, showing again the partial decoupling we have been seeing over the past 18 months of emissions and economic growth....

The problem with any of these substances is the emissions.

Overall, (click here) fluorinated gas emissions in the United States have increased by about 77% between 1990 and 2014. This increase has been driven by a 258% increase in emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) since 1990 as they have been widely used as a substitute for ozone-depleting substances....

A tornado watch or warning would definitiely curtail my plans if it were me. Tornadoes travel through an area fairly quickly.

April 29, 2016
By John Panicker 

Celina, Texas -- A wedding venue(click here) in Celina suffered serious damage after a possible tornado ripped through the outskirts of town.
Nena Wise, owner of Venue at Waterstone, saw the tornado rip through the large venue from across the pond where her home sits.
She says it happened very quickly. Wise says a lot of the tin on the roof was ripped off and some barn doors tore off. Some of that damage landed in a nearby pond, and other debris hit a neighbor's home.

Wise is just thankful that no one was hurt.
There is a wedding event scheduled for Saturday. In fact, the wedding party had just left the location 30 minutes before the possible tornado hit.

Wise told News 8 that the bride and planner are discussing their options but are wanting to still have the wedding on the property.

PFCs: stay in Earth's atmosphere for 2,600 years to 50,000 years; with global warming capacity of 7,390-12,200 greater than carbon dioxide.

Perfluorocarbons (click here) are compounds produced as a by-product of various industrial processes associated with aluminum production and the manufacturing of semiconductors. Like HFCs, PFCs generally have long atmospheric lifetimes and high GWPs. Sulfur hexafluoride is used in magnesium processing and semiconductor manufacturing, as well as a tracer gas for leak detection. HFC-23 is produced as a by-product of HCFC-22 production.

Greenville, Mississippi

Folks (click here) from around the community are teaming up to help people who suffered losses during the floods last month. With 761 homes damaged in Washington County, there is still a lot of work to be done. Delta Force is a long-term recovery committee that helps those who suffered losses and can not help themselves. The committee is comprised of volunteer community leaders from area churches, schools, and organizations who all want to improve their community. Delta Force is still asking for donations and help from volunteers in Washington County. You can show up to a weekly meeting at 9:00 Tuesday morning at the Washington County Convention Center.

May 1, 2016
By Stacie Knight

...Most of the damage on Tuesday (click here) occurred from EF-1 tornadoes, with the average wind speed between 90-110 mph (NWS). As they continue to survey, we will bring you updates on their findings. For folks that have to continue to clean up, there is good news in the fact that we have quiet weather in the week ahead. 
As we continue through May, it is important to stay weather aware. May is usually our busiest month when it comes to tornadoes. On average, the state sees about 22 tornadoes a year. Last year, we had 83 (statewide). That number is close to the record of 91 in 2010. 
Did we ever have a May where we did not have any confirmed tornadoes? Yes we did, back in 2005. 

Texas and Oklahoma aren't alone. Mississippi has a lot more wetlands, rivers and tributaries, so it catches a lot of the flooding.


A little more history about perfluorocarbons.

27 December 2016

In the 1960's, (click here) researchers discovered that there could be an alternative method for supporting injured lungs. They found that mice whose lungs were filled with an oxygenated saline solution could survive for several hours. Further uses with oxygenated silicone oils had some success, but were later found to be toxic.

Liquid ventilation is accomplished through a liquid called perfluorocarbon (PFC). Leland C. Clark, Jr. and Frank Gollan published an article in 1966 about their experiment with fluorocarbon. They discovered that oxygen and carbon dioxide are very soluble in certain silicone oils and fluorocarbon liquids. Experimenting with mice and cats, it was found that these liquids would support the animals' respirations. What was strange was that the mice and cats that breathed the silicone oil died shortly after returning to breathing normal air, while those that remained in the fluorocarbon survive for weeks. The cats proved to have excellent arterial oxygenation, but there was a problem with carbon dioxide elimination. The most significant discovery that resulted from this period of time was the potential for the use of these perfluorochemical liquids.

Studies of total (tidal) liquid ventilation were first performed in treatments of several premature babies in 1989. These studies showed improvement in patients' lung compliance and gas exchange, but could not be pursued further due to the lack of technology to provide an applicable liquid ventilator system. Also at that time there was not a pharmaceutical-grade PFC available....

Yes that is an actual cloud scape over Rosanky, Texas. Mammatus clouds are precursors to tornadoes.

April 25, 2016
By Westerberg

Photographer states:  Menacing Mammatus form over Rosanky, TX, about 40 miles SE of Austin. This was right after sunset on 04/25/16. The weather was humid but otherwise, fine.

"Tornado Tally from recent storms grow to nine." (click here)
May 1, 2016
By Paighten Harkins
...Though nearly a week has passed since the thunderstorms, (click here) meteorologist Pete Snyder said surveyors haven't finished assessing possible tornado-damaged areas. He said it's likely about dozen tornadoes touched down during the storms.
Tuesday's a squall line developed in northwest Texas and southwest Oklahoma, where it traveled into central Oklahoma and northeast Kansas before it moved into eastern Oklahoma and Arkansas.
Because of the breadth of these storms, as well as their strong straight line winds, meteorologists are having difficulties quantifying its damage and whether or not it came from tornadoes, Snyder said. 
“I’ve been here for about 17 years almost," Snyder said. "I’ve never seen this many of them with a system like this.”
Surveyors sent to locations to evaluate damage look at patterns — how debris is scattered or which directions trees fell — to determine if its tornado-damaged or not. From there, they look at the strength of damaged structures or trees to estimate wind speed and rate the tornado on the EF scale, Snyder said.
Snyder was unsure when the National Weather Service would have a complete list of the storm system's tornadoes, adding he was still receiving calls about new potential tornado-damaged areas Sunday.

Perfluorocarbons are an interesting group of greenhouse gases.

....The story of perfluorocarbons (PFC) (click here) began in the middle of World War II (1). In the desert of Alamo, scientists trying to develop the hydrogen bomb needed a chemically inert molecule to manipulate highly sensitive components. They observed that substituting hydrogen atoms of carbohydrates with atoms of fluor produces electrovalent liaisons so strong that they prevent any kind of reaction with other molecules....

Perfluorocompounds go through a chemical process that removes hydrogens from carbon chains and replaces them with flourine. 

I find the use of the word carbohydrate odd. Carbohydrates have oxygen molecules. But, what this example shows are hydrocarbons otherwise known as hydrogen carbon chains.

The names of the chains are below:

The carbon chain above is propane. Three hydrogens at each end and two hydrogens in the center. The common suffix is -ane.

The word defining the number of carbons is the first part of the word.

Pentane, like pentagon, has five carbons. Octane, like octopus, has eight carbons.

Decane, like decade, has ten carbons. 

And so on and so forth. 

It is amazing what people can get used to when they have no alternative. Heck, the people in Bangladesh live in boats because there is no room on the land.

May 1, 2016
A man in Lindale, Texas (click here) says he had very little warning in the moments before a twister ripped through his mobile home on Friday night....
It's Sunday Night

"September" by Earth, Wind and Fire (click here for official website - thank you)

Do you remember the
21st night of September?
Love was changing the minds of pretenders
While chasing the clouds away

Our hearts were ringing
In the key that our souls were singing.
As we danced in the night,
Remember how the stars stole the night away

Ba de ya - say do you remember
Ba de ya - dancing in September
Ba de ya - never was a cloudy day

Ba duda, ba duda, ba duda, badu
Ba duda, badu, ba duda, badu
Ba duda, badu, ba duda

My thoughts are with you
Holding hands with your heart to see you
Only blue talk and love,
Remember how we knew love was here to stay

Now December found the love we shared in September.
Only blue talk and love,
Remember the true love we share today

Ba de ya - say do you remember
Ba de ya - dancing in September
Ba de ya - never was a cloudy day

There was a
Ba de ya - say do you remember
Ba de ya - dancing in September
Ba de ya - golden dreams were shiny days

The bell was ringing, aha
Our souls were singing
Do you remember
Never a cloudy day

There was a
Ba de ya - say do you remember
Ba de ya - dancing in September
Ba de ya - never was a cloudy day

There was a
Ba de ya - say do you remember
Ba de ya - dancing in September
Ba de ya - golden dreams were shiny days

Ba de ya de ya de ya
Ba de ya de ya de ya
ba de ya de ya de ya
De ya

Ba de ya de ya de ya
Ba de ya de ya de ya
ba de ya de ya de ya

This is not the first time the US Military attempted to leverlage power by public opinion.

January 9, 2016
By Lolita C. Baldor

Washington - A top Marine general predicts (click here) that the Defense Department's vows to maintain the same standards for women and men in combat jobs won't last, saying the military will eventually be pressured to lower the qualifications so more women can serve in jobs like the Marine infantry.
The public comments by Gen. John Kelly, head of U.S. Southern Command, underscored how strongly the Marines opposed Defense Secretary Ash Carter's plans to fully integrate women into all combat jobs, including the Marine Corps and special operations forces like Navy SEALs and Army Green Berets. A new, high-level disagreement is erupting over whether the Marine Corps must also fully integrate its 12-week recruit training program at Parris Island in South Carolina.
"They're saying we are not going to change any standards," Kelly told reporters at the Pentagon on Friday. "There will be great pressure, whether it's 12 months from now, four years from now, because the question will be asked whether we've let women into these other roles, why aren't they staying in those other roles? Why aren't they advancing as infantry people?"
Kelly, who has been a Marine for 45 years and served three tours in Iraq, said the sole basis for change in the military should be whether the change will make units more lethal.
"If the answer to that is no, clearly don't do it. If the answer to that is, it shouldn't hurt, I would suggest that we shouldn't do it, because it might hurt," Kelly said....

It reminds me of the obsession about nukes and the idea the USA had to have more numbers of nuclear warheads than the USSR. How lethal does lethal have to be? 
The UAE might want to pass on intelligence about even minor events of protests to their coalition members and ultimately to the United Nations and NATO. It is important a correct understanding can be discerned by the global community before inflammatory political rhetoric sweeps the USA into a war frenzy.

I am hearing good things such as a decrease in anti-American sentiment. I am sure that is brought on by the USA military having marginal presence in the region. Anti-American sentiment brings on attacks like September 11, 2001.

If there is a diminishment of anti-American sentiment in the world, it also proves the charismatic movement of Daesh is being defeated as well. I think the Arab coalition, including places like Indonesia, is winning about extremists that lie to young Muslims.

The USA is NOT going to war again in Iraq. President Obama's information may be tainted by mlitary intelligence with a single focus to kill.

As an American journalist the drive is to instill fear in the American people and the desire for war. Every demonstration that takes place in Baghdad, Iraq will be an opportunity to affiliate the Iraqi people with Daesh. That is not the case here. There were NO GUNS OR BOMBS OR HUMVEES. It was THE SAME type of demonstration with the Shi'ites seen before. So, a few blocks of concrete fell, they probably needed to come down a long time ago.

There was not one American journalist that reported on the reasons for the demonstrations. Not one. Why? Because they don't know why.

By every measure the ability to demonstration and live through it is a huge difference from the Iraq of the past. There is no reason to punish anyone for bringing forth grievances. 

The demonstrators want political freedom and they want to be heard. I congratulate the protesters. These people (if they were Shi'ites) are rightful citizens of Iraq. They are complaining to the Iraq administration who is not paying attention otherwise. IF ALL THESE FOLKS WERE SHI'ITES, we have seen this level of demonstration before with an entire USA miltiary attack on a mosque. These demonstrators in this instance are no different than when they had plenty of American guns pointed at them and tanks rolling into their streets; they were peaceful and did NOTHING but walk in demonstration to protect their city, mosque and neighborhoods. IF THESE FOLKS ARE SHI'TES they are tired of the quality of life they live under which brings poverty and not QUALITY OF LIFE that should be afforded a democracy.

The news article below is obviously better informed. It is a long lived news publication "The Gulf News" published in the United Arab Emerits. The UAE is famous for attracting young Muslims to work and find a quality of life not necessarily found in their birth home. I am sure the UAE journalists acknowledge legitimate problems among the population of other countries in the region.

Just looking at the swim area in Baghdad really makes one pause about terrorists when realizing these demonstrators want to have the same type of facility in their neighborhoods. I think that fact is more than reason to protest and BE SURE TO BE HEARD.

I don't believe a damn word in the USA newspapers because they haven't got the facts. MORONS. Journalists providing PROPAGANDA should be called nothing short of morons.


Because they treat the American people as if they are. Here we go again with war mongering and STENOGRAPHY rather than journalism. Oh, I almost forgot. the world might actually know what is happening in Iraq if "W" hadn't destroyed the newspaper begun by Muqtada al Sadr.

The attack on the mosque by USA guns and tanks came after the newspaper was closed. About 1000 Shi'ites demonstrated then, too.

The USA media may very well be lying about the protesters in Baghdad.

It’s one of the most beautiful places to be in Baghdad. It should be for everyone, yet the people were not allowed here, says protester.

May 1, 2016

Baghdad: Thousands of anti-government protesters (click here) ended their mass demonstration in Baghdad’s Green Zone on Sunday after breaking into the fortified area and storming the parliament, as Iraq’s premier called for rioters to be pursued and punished.
Earlier on Sunday, protesters pulled down or scaled slabs of heavy concrete blast wall to enter the fortified area where Iraq’s main government institutions are located, the culmination of weeks of political turmoil and inaction by parliament.
While there is still the potential for escalation, the situation was calm earlier on Sunday, with protesters touring the area and taking photos of places they have rarely if ever been able to access.
“This is the first time I’ve been here since I came with my school under Saddam [Hussain],” said 32-year-old Yousuf Al Assadi, who took a “selfie” in front of the Unknown Soldier’s monument....

Now, you need to sit down for this. Ready?

What is this a map of?

Under a free trade agreement where would Americans expect to see more jobs? 

Why did Indianapolis job rate increase? 

Indianapolis is Number 5465 as FedEx hubs.  (click here) 

Hidden within the job statistics that job growth has proven to be benefitted by trade agreements as NAFTA; is actually population growth.

In this study of Indiana the job growth over 14 years is actually ONLY 2 percent. This study does not describe the job growth as to what sector or the pay from that growth. In other words when discussing job growth after NAFTA it gets tricky because of population growth, the change in the type of jobs involved in the region and the overall wealth of the people within that dynamic.

NAFTA dramatically effected the GDP of Indiana when considering there was only 2 percent jobs added post NAFTA.

There is a lot to be accounted for when discussing NAFTA and it's impact on PAY and income inequality. 

Job growth occurred in only one city in Indiana while the remainder of the state saw job losses and increases in poverty.

The accumulating news of employment growth (click here) in the nation and Indiana are promising, even if the speed of this growth is still under debate. However, often overlooked in the tabulation of aggregate numbers is the composition and location of these jobs. This article assesses the latter point in determining the location of job growth in Indiana.
Taking the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) non-seasonally adjusted Current Employment Statistics (CES) employment data for metropolitan statistical areas (MSA), it is possible to track metro-level employment growth from October 2000 to October 2014.
In examining the MSA data for the 12 Indiana-based areas, one can see that over the course of 14 years, employment grew by 84,114, an increase of 4.2 percent (see Table 1). The 2013 Census population estimates for these MSAs was 4,146,968, resulting in an employment growth to population ratio of 2 percent....

Indiana's GDP during that same time period shows collapse and it's recovery, too. What it doesn't show is an increase over past performance. The larger population shows wage stagnation and further impoverishment because there was no GDP growth for the time period jobs were increasing in only one city in Indiana.

As the economic recovery gained traction, (click here) the Indiana economy regained about half of the jobs lost during the recession (2008 and 2009), gaining 57,000 jobs in 2011, and 56,000 jobs in 2012. Sub-par for a recovery bounce-back, but better than the alternative. Unfortunately, by the end of 2013, Indiana is expected to have added only 37,200 jobs.
Gross domestic product (GDP) growth followed a similar pattern. Indiana’s GDP took a bigger hit than the nation’s in 2008 and 2009, as Figure 1 shows. Output growth rebounded more quickly in the Hoosier state and has since run a tick above the national growth rate. The year 2013, however, is a departure. The year is expected to close out with a growth rate about 1.3 percent (compared to the United States at 1.7 percent)....

If anyone believes simply changing the 'sales pitch' to Wall Street, by stating the USA has a better work force, will change the outcome of NAFTA, they are sadly mistaken. Wall Street already knows the USA has the better work force. The CEOs don't care about the quality of the work force because many manufacturing jobs can be learned by people without educations. That has been true in Mexico and China. Company CEOs want bonuses and they know with a cheaper work force they can earn high bonuses. CEOs accept the fact the cheaper work force will not be as efficient, but, so what. The manufacturing costs drop so dramatically that inefficiency is not revealed.

The fact of the matter is when jobs are lost in the USA as manufacturing leaves, the GDP drops in states and nationally. 

What CEOs should be looking at is the impoverishment of their consumers in the USA. While CEOs like immediate gratification in bonuses, the long term prediction of the companies profits is very bad. We know that for a fact and the history of profits at GM is the best LIVING example of that.

Free trade agreements are bad for Americans and bad for the country. We lose jobs, we lose good paying jobs and most of all we lose GDP. The USA's current national debt is fueled by NAFTA. 

Let's make this real simple. The population of Indiana increased by seven percent from the years 2000 to 2014. HOWEVER, the population concentrated in the Indianapolis area and the GDP FELL nearly an entire point to 3.0 percent in 2014 from 3.9 percent in 2000.

Free Trade Agreements are adverse to the best outcomes of Americans because it removes good paying jobs. They are detrimental to states and the country because the treasury income drops regardless of population growth. And, ultimately Free Trade Agreements impede states and the federal government to pay off it's debt because of the falling GDP. The national debt is definitely tied to the USA GDP.

The politicians can talk about lowering the national debt all they want, but, until there is higher income to USA citizens the debt will continue to grow with each new free trade agreement signed into law.

Simple population growth is not solving the problems of the USA, it is making it worse. Evidence to that is the emergence and sustained numbers of the working poor.

The national debt is not just about SPENDING it is also and to a greater extent about INCOME to the treasury.