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Sunday, March 05, 2017
The three top steel producers in the world are China, the United States, and Japan, in that order. The United States and Japan each produce around 100 million tons (90 million metric tons) of steel per year, and China had an output in 2000 of about 140 million tons (127 million metric tons). Iron and steel make up approximately 90 percent of all the metal produced in the world. The largest steel company in the United States is United States Steel, which produces about 20 percent of the country's steel.
Types of Steel:
Carbon Steel.This is the most widely used kind of steel. Its carbon content is under 2 percent and is usually less than 1 percent. It often also contains a little manganese.
Stainless Steel.This is the most corrosion-resistant kind of steel. It normally contains at least 12 percent (and sometimes up to 30 percent) chromium, and it usually also contains nickel. A very popular stainless steel formulation is 18-8, 18 percent chromium and 8 percent nickel.
Alloy Steels.These contain a little carbon, and sometimes silicon, but they mainly contain added metals, such as manganese (hardness), nickel (strength), molybdenum (improved wear), tungsten (high temperature strength), chromium (corrosion resistance), and vanadium (toughness).
Galvanized Steel.This steel is coated with zinc to protect against corrosion. The coating is usually done by a hot dip process.
Electroplated Steel.This steel has a coating of another metal, usually tin, applied by the use of an electric current. Tin-plated steel is widely used for making cans and other containers.
Tool Steel. This is very hard steel made by tempering (heating to a very high temperature and then quickly cooling).
Damascus Steel.This was a very high quality ancient steel with a beautiful wavy surface pattern used in making sword blades. It seems to have come mainly from India.
Wootz Steel. This was actually a European mispronunciation of ukku, the very fine steel made in ancient India that they called "wook." (It is probably the same material as Damascus steel.)
This is just one article regarding the pollution of iron and steel plants.
Jamal Mohamed Ben Sasi, International Journal of Mining, Metallurgy & Mechanical Engineering (IJMMME) Volume 1, Issue 3 (2013); pp. 219-222. ISSN 2320-4052; EISSN 2320-4060
Abstract—The aim of this paper (click here) is to access the results allow to
understand and rectify the various risks caused by industrial
pollutants in general, and pollutants iron and steel plants in particular,
and work on how to reduce these risks, and the possibility of finding
optimal solutions and to ensure treatment immediate and follow-up
and in a coordinated and periodically. Risks caused by iron and steel
industry set in the waste of various solid, liquid and gaseous. The
additional is the side effects of noise resulting from the industry, as it
has been proven scientifically through studies and researches that
have been made by some international organizations related to the
environmental studies and health .There are emissions resulting from
iron and steel plants have a direct impact on the environment , safety
, human health, and also have direct cause of what is happening in the
world of climate change, occurrence of the phenomenon of global
warming, melting ocean ice and increasing the proportion of
exposure to chronic diseases.
From background ,we can figure out that if we find satisfactory
solutions , perfect, and access to low impact of this industry. It must
work to develop modern methods and alternative efficient even be
reduced the dust iron, emissions, pollutant gases, and making optimal
designs for iron and steel plants, so that the environmental impact